Development of a Nutrient Medium for the Growth of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Roots by tTissue Culture

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  • 1 Plant Production Dept., College of Agriculture, K.S.U., P.O. Box 2460 Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Several experiments were conducted in this investigation with the objective of determining the chemical components and the physical state of an optimal medium for the growth and elongation of excised date palm, cv Sukkari, roots. The chemical tests carried out included: Comparison of (MS)-salts with “White's”-salts mixture and different concentrations of (MS)-salts and its chelated iron; sugars; Modified White's Organics; inositol; adenine sulfate; growth regulators; and some antioxidants. The physical tests, on the other hand, included comparison of the growth and elongation of cultured roots in a liquid or on solidified nutrient media. The effects of various pH values were also tested. Roots were cultured in basal nutrient media composed of: (MS)-salts mixture, and (in mg·liter–1): NaH2PO4·H2O, 170; sucrose, 30,000; inositol, 200; Modified White's Organics; adenine sulfate, 120; activated charcoal, 1500; (2,4-D), 1; kinetin, 2. pH was adjusted at 5.7 ± 01. (MS)-salts mixture was found to be superior to “White's”-salts. No significant difference was observed between (1/2MS) and full-strength (MS)-salts. However, twice the concentration was found to be inhibitory. The normal concentration of (MS)-Fe was found to be optimum for root growth and elongation. The optimal concentration most suitable for the growth and elongation of excised date palm roots has been determined for each of: sugars; Modified White's Organics; inositol; and adenine sulfate. The only growth regulator that needs to be added to the nutrient medium is 2,4-D at 0.1–1.0 mg·liter–1. The study showed the importance of the inclusion of activated charcoal to the nutrient medium. The growth and elongation of roots were both stimulated at all concentrations tested. (PVP), on the other hand, was inhibitory at all concentrations tested. Shaken liquid media was recommended for better root growth and elongation at pH 7.0–8.0. Incidentally, the medium developed was found to support the growth and elongation of roots excised from two other cultivars, namely `Khudri' and `Khaias'.

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