The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to characterize 15 cultivars of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). A total of 37 polymorphic markers were considered in this study. Each cultivar exhibited a unique molecular phenotype and, as a consequence, can be uniquely fingerprinted. A similarity and cluster analysis based on the amplified fragments produced two distinct groups which are consistent with the known geographical origin of the cultivars. Our results suggest that RAPD analysis can provide a new alternative for cultivar identification and classification of pistachio.