Genetic and environmental variances for fruit ripening time (FRT), fruit weight, and soluble solids concentration (SSC) in Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) were estimated. The variance among fruit within a tree was the largest among environmental variances. Therefore, using a large sample size per tree and per year effectively increased heritability, but the effect was minimal when more than five fruit were sampled. The variance among years was largest for SSC and smallest for FRT. Generally, the variance associated with the genotype × year interaction was as large as the tree × year interaction. The variance among trees within a genotype was negligible for all traits. Repeating measurements yearly was more efficient than replicating trees.
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