Seedlings obtained from mutations on conifer trees exhibit populations of dwarf shrubs. The general characteristics of the shrubs often differ from progeny to progeny. The most obvious difference between progenies is in annual rates of growth, with some showing growth rates 10 or more times greater than the slowest growing group. Differences that appear within each progeny include needle length, foliage coloration, branching habit and plant form. As a consequence, many interesting forms have been produced and named that are miniature, dwarf, and intermediate in size.
Variations in form include plants that are columnar, rounded, spreading, and weeping. Whereas variation in foliage color include blue-green, green, and gold.