Correlation of Bioassay Crop Growth with Cinmethylin and Chlorimuron Application Rates for Two Soils

in HortScience

Ten crops were evaluated for potential use as field bioassay species for cinmethylin and chlorimuron application rates in two soil types. Cinmethylin injured sweet corn (Zea mays L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] at concentrations as low as 0.28 kg·ha-1 on either soil type, while broadleaf crops were tolerant. Chlorimuron injured sweet corn, grain sorghum, radish (Raphanus sativus L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and watermelon [Citrullis lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.] at rates ≥ 2.5 g·ha-1, and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) at rates ≥ 5.0 g·ha-1 on a Dothan sand. In a Congaree silt loam, chlorimuron injured cucumber at rates ≥ 5.0 g·ha-1, sweet corn, watermelon, and squash at rates ≥ 10 g·ha-1, and grain sorghum, radish, and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) at rates ≥ 20 g·ha-1. Soybean and snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were tolerant to chlorimuron in both soil types. Cinmethylin activity was not altered by soil type, but with chlorimuron greater crop injury was observed in the Dothan sand than in the Congaree silt loam. Sweet corn and grain sorghum were the most sensitive indicator species to cinmethylin and cucumber was the most sensitive to chlorimuron in both soils. Plant emergence and population alone are not valid indicators for crop tolerance to herbicides. Quantitative measurements such as shoot dry weight were more indicative of crop susceptibility to chlorimuron than plant populations. Chemical names used: exo -1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-2 -[(2-methylphenyl) methoxy]-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane (cinmethylin); 2-[[[[(4-chloro-6-methoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)amino] carbonyl]amino] sulfonyl]benzoic acid (chlorimuron).

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