The effects of temperature and root-lesion nematodes [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb)] on the growth of newly germinated `Bartlett' pear seedlings (Pyrus communis L.) were examined. At five temperatures from 10 to 30C, P. penetrans (five per gram of soil) did not purple the leaves. After 8 weeks, leaf number, trunk height, and top and root weights were reduced only at 25C. The number of P. penetrans in the roots were greatest at 15 and 20C. At 20C, P. penetrans (16 per gram of soil) caused the leaves of seedlings to turn purple, and, by 6 weeks after treatment, the nematodes had reduced leaf production, trunk elongation, and top and root growth.