Changes of Morphological and Biochemical Properties in Organically Grown Zucchini Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)

in HortScience

The present research was undertaken with the aim of justifying the effect of morphological, physiological, and nutritional properties in organically produced zucchini squash. The experiment consisted of two factors: three levels of pruning (P0 = no pruning, P1 = primary pruning at 20 days after transplanting (DAT), and P2 = secondary pruning at 30 DAT) and four levels of vermicompost application (V0 = control, V1 = 5 t/ha, V2 = 10 t/ha, and V3 = 15 t/ha). The results demonstrated that morphological parameters, reproductive components, and yield and proximate compositions were significant differences among the treatments. Increased male and female flower production were recorded from primary pruning with 10 t/ha vermicompost treatment plots compared with control treatments. Finally, increased fruit number, individual fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, total yield, carbohydrate, protein, crude fat, fiber, and ash were reported from the same treatment combination (P1V2). Taken together, 10 t/ha vermicompost with primary pruning appear to provide maximum output in terms of yield and nutrient value compared with other treatments.

Abstract

The present research was undertaken with the aim of justifying the effect of morphological, physiological, and nutritional properties in organically produced zucchini squash. The experiment consisted of two factors: three levels of pruning (P0 = no pruning, P1 = primary pruning at 20 days after transplanting (DAT), and P2 = secondary pruning at 30 DAT) and four levels of vermicompost application (V0 = control, V1 = 5 t/ha, V2 = 10 t/ha, and V3 = 15 t/ha). The results demonstrated that morphological parameters, reproductive components, and yield and proximate compositions were significant differences among the treatments. Increased male and female flower production were recorded from primary pruning with 10 t/ha vermicompost treatment plots compared with control treatments. Finally, increased fruit number, individual fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, total yield, carbohydrate, protein, crude fat, fiber, and ash were reported from the same treatment combination (P1V2). Taken together, 10 t/ha vermicompost with primary pruning appear to provide maximum output in terms of yield and nutrient value compared with other treatments.

Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) is one of the most nutritive and delicious vegetables; its origins are central Mexico, Peru, and the United States (Kathiravan et al., 2006). Squash belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceae and genus of Cucurbita. There are two main types of squash: winter squash and summer squash. Zucchini squash is a summer variety and contains more vitamin A, as well as a significant amount of vitamins C, E, and B6; niacin; thiamine; and antioxidant compounds. A 100-g edible portion of zucchini squash contains 94.8 g of moisture, 0.5 g of protein, 3.5 g of carbohydrate, 0.1 g of fat, 0.8 g of fiber, 17 kcal of energy, 0.3 g of minerals, 0.6 mg of iron, 0.02 mg of thiamine, 0.4 mg of niacin, 18 mg of vitamin C, 10 mg of calcium, and 30 mg of phosphorus (Bose et al., 2000). The total vegetable production of Bangladesh is 3365 metric tons (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 2014), but new introduction of squash production is low compared with other vegetables.

Pruning is one of the management practices for squash cultivation that increases the quantity of marketable yield harvested in the first cut, indicating that fruit maturity was also advanced (Devi and Varma, 2014). Varieties of summer squash such as zucchini are often allowed to grow unrestricted on large outdoor plots. Their vines and foliage become long and may curl, giving the impression that much space is necessary to cultivate these vegetables (Esmaielpour and Hokmalipour, 2014). With pruning, the plant takes up less space, and the practice also causes the plant to focus its energy on the remaining fruit, thus growing larger squash. Moreover, pruning helps squash vines grow properly and produce a larger number of squash for harvest.

Excessive use of chemical fertilizers causes pollution of soil, water, and air. There have also been antagonistic effects on human and cattle health due to agrochemicals residue in food products (Kumar and Bohra, 2006). Multiple health hazards and irreparable environmental pollution have occurred from the use of inorganic fertilizers (Hinds et al., 2016). Modern agricultural practices, such as organic or ecological or sustainable agriculture, are being developed to reduce the adverse effects of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides on human health and the environment (Aksoy, 2001; Chowdhury, 2004). Today, researchers have shifted their focus to organic farming to reduce the hazardous effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Recently, consumers have begun to appreciate organic farming due to the enhanced produce quality (Rashid, 2004). Vermicompost is a biocontrol agent that helps to increase the production of crops and protect them from harmful pests without polluting the enbironment (Joshi et al., 2015). Vermicompost also significantly stimulates the growth and productivity of plants (Edwards, 1998). Vermicompost is used as organic fertilizer to improve soil aeration and enhance soil microorganisms, plant growth, and eventually crop yield. Vermicompost also encourages the microbial activity of soil, increases the accessibility of O2, conserves normal soil temperature, improves soil porosity and infiltration of water, increases nutrient content, and ultimately improve growth, yield, and quality of the plant (Arora et al., 2011; Rekha et al., 2018). It also provides plants with essential nutrients and aids in the suppression of plant diseases, and improves root growth and structure (Sarkar et al., 2003).

With all of this in mind, we studied the effects of pruning and vermicomposting on changes of morphophysiological and biochemical properties of zucchini squash.

Materials and Methods

Experimental site.

The research was conducted at the horticultural farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207, for two seasons, from Nov. 2015 to Feb. 2016 and from Nov. 2016 to Feb. 2017. The experimental field was located at 90°22′E longitude and 23°41′N latitude at an altitude of 8.2 m above the sea level. It was in Agro-Ecological Zone of Madhupur tract (AEZ No. 28) with deep red-brown terrace soil, which belongs to the Nodda cultivated series. The soil was sandy loam in texture with a particle density of 2.65 (g·ccG−1) and bulk density of 1.52 (g·ccG−1). The soil pH was 6.43; organic matter 0.84 (%); total N 0.46 (%); exchangeable K 0.41 (meq/100 g soil); available P 18.65, S 20.92, Fe 225, Zn 4.55, and Mg 0.81(µg·g−1), respectively. The experimental area was under the subtropical monsoon climate, which is characterized by scanty rainfall during the Rabi season (November to February).

Planting materials, experimental design, and treatments.

The experiment was performed in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with six replications consisting of two factors: factor A, three levels of pruning (P0 = no pruning, P1 = primary pruning at 20 DAT, and P2 = secondary pruning at 30 DAT) and factor B, four levels of vermicompost application (V0 = control, V1 = 5 t/ha, V2 = 10 t/ha, and V3 = 15 t/ha). In addition, the treatment combinations were P0V0, P0V1, P0V2, and P0V2; P1V0, P1V1, P1V2, and P1V2 and P2V0, P2V1, P2V2, and P2V3, respectively. Experimental plot size was 2 m × 2 m and plant spacing was maintained 1m × 1m. Each unit plot had four pits and each pit contained one plant.

Seeds sowing, pit preparation, and transplanting of seedlings.

Seeds were soaked at 24 h and then sown in polybags having compost mixed soil for seedling rising. Two seeds were sown in each polybag. The polybags were kept in a shady location. They were watered regularly during the seedling period. When the seedlings (22 d old) attained four true leaves and were sufficiently hard, they were transplanted in the pit.

Vermicomposting and pruning.

Vermicompost was applied in each plot by making pit as a basal dose. Then expected doses of vermicompost were applied in each pit and covered with one layer of soil for 1 week for composting. Pruning was done according to their treatment. Primary pruning was done by removing the first branch at 20 d after transplanting, and secondary pruning was done by removing the second branch at 30 d after transplanting.

Data collection.

Growth parameters such as stem diameter (cm), stem length (cm), number of male flowers, number of female flowers, individual fruit weight (g), total number of fruit, fruit length (cm), fruit diameter (cm), yield (t/ha), and proximate compositions were measured following the standard procedure

Proximate analysis.

AOAC (1990) standard methods were used to quantify nutrients for proximate analysis (% moisture, % proteins, % fat, % ash, and % carbohydrate) from fruit samples. Oven-drying (Gallenkamp, plus II ovens, Germany) was used to determine moisture content followed by Sadiq et al. (2013). The NCS elementary analyzer (Flash 2000 Organic Elemental Analyzer, Germany) was used to estimate crude proteins. Crude fat content was determined from fruit samples by using hexane as an organic solvent. Ash content was determined by using muffle furnace (Carbolite RHS 1600, Germany), and carbohydrate (%) was determined with the following formula (Kwiri et al., 2014):

(%)CHO=100(%moisture+proteins+%Fat+%Ash)

Statistical analysis.

Data were recorded and processed over two growing seasons and analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 21.0. The mean for the treatments was calculated, and analysis of variance for each of the characters was performed by F test. Comparisons of the mean data and se were determined by DMRT (Duncan’s multiple range tests) at P ≤ 0.5 level of significance.

Results and Discussion

Effects of growth parameters by pruning and vermicomposting

Growth parameters were significantly influenced by pruning and vermicompost application. At 40 DAT and 55 DAT, a maximum stem length of 49.5 cm and 52.3 cm, respectively, was observed with P2 treatment; stem diameter of 1.5 cm and 2.2 cm, respectively, was recorded with P1 treatment. The shortest stem length with P1 treatment was 47.4 cm and 51.4 cm, respectively, and stem diameter of 1.4 cm and 1.9 cm in P0 (no pruning) treatment (Table 1). Similar results were found during harvest (Table 1). Furthermore, vermicomposting significantly influenced the stem length at various days after transplanting. Compared with the control treatment, the longest stem length (53.1 cm) and largest stem diameter (1.7 cm) at 40 DAT were recorded from V2 treatment (Table 1). At 55 DAT and at harvest time, we found similar results with the application of vermicompost (Table 1). The interaction effect of pruning and vermicompost showed statistically significant differences in stem length and diameter. The longest stem length (56.0 cm) and greatest stem diameter (1.6 cm) at 40 DAT was observed from the treatment combination P2V2 compared with other treatments. Similar results were also found at 55 DAT and harvest time (Table 2).

Table 1.

Effect of pruning and vermicompost on growth parameters of zucchini squash.

Table 1.
Table 2.

Interaction effect of pruning and vermicompost on growth parameters of zucchini squash.

Table 2.

Pruning helps to generate a better plant condition; sunlight more easily reaches the whole plants, increasing interception of light for photosynthesis. We observed that the stem length and stem of squash were greatest with pruning practices at the early growth stage of 40 d after transplanting. A similar result was also reported by Syamsi et al. (2017), who noted that proper accumulation of light increases the availability of air circulation and CO2 in the stem and ultimately increases stem length and diameter. The availability of light and CO2 increases the photosynthesis rate in plants, and nonpruned plants display extreme vegetative growth, causing suboptimal use of photosynthesis and resulting in decreases of plant yield (Coggins and Lovatt, 2014). Stem pruning is expected to create optimal space for the vegetative growth, which helps promote photosynthesis, resulting in cell enlargement in fruit length and diameter (Pompelli et al., 2010). Pruning helps reduce unproductive plant parts, which allows the photosynthesis process to be more widely allocated, enhancing fruit weight and production (Yu et al., 2013). We also found that proper pruning significantly enhanced yield-contributing parameters. We observed increased flowering, fruit number per plant, fruit length and diameter, and ultimately increased yield compared with no pruning. Awalin et al. (2017) described a similar result with regard to fruit setting, fruits per plant, and ultimate yield with early-stage stem pruning in bell pepper.

Vermicomposting is an anaerobic and biotic method that promotes eco-friendly, humus-like organic substances (Chanda et al., 2011). Vermicompost is an important organic fertilizer containing high contents of humus, nitrogen (2% to 3%), phosphorous (1.50% to 2.25%), and potassium (1.80% to 2.25%) micronutrients, as well as beneficial soil microbes such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhiza fungi, which increase vegetative growth of squash (Guerrero 2010). In general, application of vermicompost increases seed germination, stem height, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf dry weight, root length, root number, total yield, number of fruits per plant, chlorophyll content, pH of juice, total soluble solids of juice, micro- and macronutrients, carbohydrate (%), and protein (%) content and improved the quality of the fruits and seeds (Joshi et al., 2014).

Pruning and vermicompost application influenced yield attributes

Pruning significantly influenced yield-contributing parameters in zucchini squash (Tables 3 and 4). The maximum number of female flowers (14.30), number of fruits per plant (10.80), individual fruit weight (313.70 g), fruit length (17.70 cm), fruit diameter (5.10 cm), and yield (36.30 t/ha) were recorded from P1 treatment, but male flowers (11.5) were observed in P2 treatment where the minimum number of female flowers (9.40), number of fruits per plant (7.0), individual fruit weight (253.30 g), fruit length (14.80 cm), fruit diameter (4.50 cm), and yield (18.90 t/ha) (Fig. 1A) was observed in P0 (control) treatment (Tables 3 and 4).

Table 3.

Effect of pruning and vermicompost on yield parameters of zucchini squash.

Table 3.
Table 4.

Effect of pruning and vermicomposting on yield parameters of zucchini squash.

Table 4.
Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Effect of (A) pruning and (B) vermicompost on yield (t/ha) of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Vermicompost also significantly influenced yield-contributing attributes of zucchini squash (Tables 3 and 4). The maximum number of female flowers (13.0), number of fruits per plant (12.3), individual fruit weight (377.0 g), fruit length (20.0 cm), fruit diameter (5.30 cm), and yield (47.6 t/ha) were recorded from V2 treatment. Only male flower (13.0) was recorded for V3 treatment, whereas the minimum number of female flowers (8.10), number of fruits per plant (5.40), individual fruit weight (198.60 g), fruit length (11.10 cm), fruit diameter (4.20 cm), and yield (10.7 t/ha) (Fig. 1B) were observed in V0 (control) treatment (Tables 3 and 4).

The combined effect of pruning and vermicompost also influenced yield-contributing attributes of zucchini squash (Tables 5 and 6). The maximum number of female flowers (18.70), number of fruits per plant (13.70), individual fruit weight (433.30 g), fruit length (21.7 cm), fruit diameter (5.80 cm), and yield (59.2 t/ha) were recorded from P1V2 treatment. Only male flowers (14.30) were recorded for P2V3 treatment, whereas the minimum number of female flowers (6.3), number of fruits per plant (4.0), individual fruit weight (175.30 g), fruit length (10.30 cm), fruit diameter (4.10 cm), and yield (7.0 t/ha) were observed in P0V0 (control) treatment (Table 5 and 6).

Table 5.

Combined effects of pruning and vermicompost on yield parameters of zucchini squash.

Table 5.
Table 6.

Interaction effect of pruning and vermicomposting on yield parameters of Zucchini squash

Table 6.

Vermicomposting is proven to enhance plant growth (Chaoui et al., 2003). We found that vermicomposting significantly influenced the yield and yield-contributing characteristics of zucchini squash. This might be because vermicompost contains a high amount of essential nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, and micronutrients that enhance photosynthesis, cell division, and cell enlargement, ultimately improving the yield-contributing characteristics of zucchini squash. Joshi et al. (2015) also suggested that vermicompost is an ideal organic manure for better growth and yield of many plants. Jaikishun et al. (2014) reported that vermicomposting improved the micronutrient levels in soil that are important for plant growth and development. Vermicomposted soil also contains a high amount of carbon, which supports the slow release of essential nutrients into the soil and allows the plants to utilize available nutrients (Ansari and Sukhraj, 2010). In the present study, we evaluated the effects of vermicomposting on growth and yield of zucchini squash, and significant results were observed with the application of 10 t/ha vermicompost compared with control. The yield was also significantly higher in tomato plants treated with optimal concentrations of vermicompost, as suggested by Vaidyanathan and Vijayalakshmi (2017). Azarmi et al. (2008) reported similar results, noting that the addition of optimal quantities of vermicompost significantly increased growth and yield compared with control in tomato plants.

Relationship of different morphological characters of zucchini squash with yield.

The yield of zucchini squash was positively correlated (Figs. 2–15) with fruit length (R2 = 0.8645), fruit diameter (R2 = 0.9448), number of male flowers (R2 = 0.776), number of female flowers (R2 = 0.9314), total number of fruits per plant (R2 = 0.9134), individual fruit weight (R2 = 0.9562), stem length (R2 = 0.534), stem diameter (R2 = 0.8066), moisture (R2 = 0.8181), fat (R2 = 0.8084), protein (R2 = 0.6613), ash (R2 = 0.9155), crude fiber (R2 = 0.8918), and carbohydrate (R2 = 0.6554). These results indicate that with the increase in these characteristics, yield increased as well. Individual fruit weight (R2 = 0.9562) had the most intimate relationship with yield, suggesting that squash plant producing higher fruit diameter, number of the female flowers, the total number of fruit, fruit length, stem diameter, and stem length will produce high economic yield and vice versa.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Relationship between fruit length and yield of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relationship between fruit diameter and yield of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relationship between the number of male flower and yield of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Relationship between the number of female flower and yield of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Relationship between the total number of fruit per plant and yield of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Relationship between individual fruit weight and yield of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Relationship between stem length and yield of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Relationship between stem diameter and yield of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Relationship between moisture (%) and yield of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Relationship between fat (%) and yield of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Relationship between protein (%) and yield of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Relationship between ash (%) and yield of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Relationship between crude fiber (%) and yield of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Relationship between carbohydrate (%) and yield of zucchini squash.

Citation: HortScience horts 54, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI14168-19

Pruning and vermicompost improved the proximate analysis.

Proximate compounds such as carbohydrates (%), protein (%), moisture (%), crude fibers (%), ash (%), and fat (%) were determined from fruit samples in this experiment. Proximate compounds showed significant differences due to pruning and vermicomposting except fat (%) (Table 7). High content of carbohydrate (25.82%), fiber (3.26%), ash (5.72%), protein (4.25%), and fat (1.65%) were found from P1V2 treatment (primary pruning at 20 DAT with 10 t/ha vermicompost) whereas lower contents of carbohydrate (19.07%), fiber (2.15%), ash (3.81%), protein (3.27%), and fat (1.27%) were recorded from the P0V0 (control) treatment combination (Table 7). The maximum moisture content (70.43%) was seen in the P0V0 (control) treatment combination, and the was seen in P1V2 treatment (primary pruning at 20 DAT with 10 t/ha vermicompost). Squash is a good energy source because of its high carbohydrate content (Karanja et al., 2014; Sharma and Rao, 2013). Squash has a low content of crude fat, which could be recommended to patients who are overweight as a dietary option and also could be used as a protein source in protein deficiency cases. Adedapo et al. (2009), Elinge et al. (2012), and Kwiri et al. (2014) reported that foods high in fiber help maintain blood cholesterol and anticonstipation. Fiber also helps maintain healthy blood sugar levels and provides energy throughout the day. The presence of high ash content indicates that squash has greater mineral element content, which improves the metabolic process and growth (Elinge et al., 2012; Fedchenkova et al., 2015; Nwofia et al., 2012). We observed similar qualitative properties due to pruning and vermicompost application. We found higher content of carbohydrate, fiber, ash, and protein from P1V2 (primary pruning at 20 DAT with 10 t/ha vermicompost), whereas the lower contents were recorded from P0V0 combination (Table 7). The maximum moisture content was determined from P0V0 and the minimum level of moisture was counted from P1V2 treatment combination. Excess moisture spoilage the fruit rapidly that’s why quash fruit need to store at cool conditions (Aruah et al., 2012; Ghani et al., 2013). Ansari and Ismail (2012) reported that vermicomposting facilitates microbial population of N2-fixing bacteria and actinomycetes activities, which are responsible for healthy soil and also help improve quality squash production. The results of our experiment exhibited positive effects not only on growth and yield, but also on some of the elemental content of zucchini squash with the addition of vermicompost compared with untreated control plots. Vermicompost at the optimal concentration increased EC of fruit juice and percentage of fruit dry matter up to 30% and 24%, respectively, in tomato compared with control in plants (Azarmi et al., 2008).

Table 7.

Effect of pruning and vermicomposting on proximate compositions of zucchini squash.

Table 7.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the maximum stem length, stem diameter, and flowering and highest fruit number, length and diameter, yield, and proximate properties were observed from the treatment combination of P1V2 (primary pruning with 10 t/ha vermicompost). Therefore, primary pruning with 10 t/ha vermicompost is a suitable cultural practice for better morphological and biochemical properties of zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

Literature Cited

  • AdedapoA.A.FlorenceO.AnthonyJ.AfolayanJ.MasikaP.J.2009Antioxidant properties of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Celtis africanaRec. Nat. Prod.3114851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AksoyU.2001Ecological agriculture: An overview [in Turkish]. Second National Symposium on Ecological Agriculture 14–16 December Antalya Turkey

  • AnsariA.A.SukhrajK.2010Effect of vermiwash and vermicompost on soil parameters and productivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in GuyanaAfr. J. Agr. Res.517941798

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AnsariA.A.IsmailS.A.2012Role of earthworms in vermitechnologyAgr. Technol. Thail.8214851491

  • AOAC1990Official methods of analysis. 14th ed. p. 76–86. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Washington DC

  • AroraV.K.SinghC.B.SidhuA.S.ThindS.S.2011Irrigation, tillage and mulching effects on soybean yield and water productivity in relation to soil textureAgr. Water Mgt.98414851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AruahB.C.UguruM.I.OyigaB.C.2012Genetic variability and inter-relationship among some nigerian pumpkin accessions (Cucurbita spp.)Inter. J. Plant Breeding6114851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AwalinS.ShahjahanM.RoyA.C.AkterA.KabirM.H.2017Response of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) to foliar feeding with micronutrients and shoot pruningJ. Agr. Ecol. Res. Intl.1118

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AzarmiR.GiglouM.T.TaleshmikailD.2008Influence of vermicompost on soil chemical and physical properties in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) fieldAfrican J. Biotechnol.71414851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics2014The yearbook of agricultural statistics of Bangladesh. Ministry of Planning Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh

  • BoseT.K.KabirJ.DasP.JoyP.P.2000Tropical Horticulture Vol. 1. Naya Prakash Calcutta

  • ChandaG.C.BhuniaG.ChakrabortyS.K.2011The effect of vermicompost and other fertilizers on the cultivation of tomato plantsJ. Hort. For.34245

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChaouiH.I.ZibilskeL.M.OhnotT.2003Effects of earthworms cast and compost on soil microbial activity and plant nutrient availabilitySoil Biol. Biochem.35295302

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChowdhuryR.2004Effects of chemical fertilizers on the surrounding environment and the alternative to the chemical fertilizersIes. Envis. Newsletter7314851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CogginsC.W.JrLovattC.J.2014Plant growth regulators. In: L. Ferguson and E. Grafton-Cardwell (eds.). Citrus Production Manual. University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources Richmond CA

  • DeviS.VarmaL.R.2014Quality of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) as influenced by plant spacing and levels of pruning under greenhouseProgress. Hort.46114851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ElingeC.M.MuhammadA.AtikuF.A.ItodoAu.PenilI.J.SanniO.M.MbongoA.N.2012Proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds extractIntl. J. Plant Res.2514851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EsmaielpourB.HokmalipourS.2014The effects of pruning and potassium nutrition on some morphological traits and seedling properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.)Intl. J. Adv. Biol. Biomed. Res.2414851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EdwardsC.A.1998The use of earthworms in the breakdown and management of organic wastes p. 327–354. In: Earthworm Ecology. CRC Press Boca Raton FL

  • FedchenkovaY.A.BatyuchenkoI.KhvorostO.P.2015The study of elemental composition of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L)BICHИК ФAPMAЦIЇ18114851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GhaniA.MustafaI.ShahA.A.IslamT.AhmedI.2013Proximate composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) irrigated with municipal wastewater of Sargodha cityVegetable Sci.40214851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GuerreroR.D.2010Vermicompost production and its use for crop production in the PhilippinesIntl. J. Glob. Environ. Issues10314851491

  • HindsJ.WangK.H.HooksC.R.2016Growth and yield of zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) as influenced by a sunn hemp living mulchBiol. Agr. Hort.32114851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JaikishunS.HunteN.AnsariA.A.GomathinayagamS.2014Effect of vermiwash from different sources (Bagasse, Neem, Paddy Straw in different combinations) in controlling fungal diseases and growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits in GuyanaJ. Biol. Sci.14814851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JoshiJ.JaswinderS.AdarshP.V.2015Vermicompost as an effective organic fertilizer and biocontrol agent: Effect on growth, yield, and quality of the plantRev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol.14137159

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KaranjaJ.K.MugendiB.J.KhamisF.M.MuchugiA.N.2014Nutritional Evaluation of Some Kenyan Pumpkins (Cucurbita spp.)Intl. J. Agr. For.4314851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KathiravanK.VengedesanG.SingerS.SteinitzB.ParisH.S.GabaV.2006Adventitious regeneration in vitro occurs across a wide spectrum of squash (Cucurbita pepo) genotypesPlant Cell Tissue Organ Cult.85285295

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KumarA.BohraB.2006Green technology in relation to sustainable agriculture. In: A. Kumar and P. Dubey (eds.). Green technologies for sustainable agriculture. Daya Publishing Delhi India

  • KwiriR.WininiC.MusengiA.MudyiwaM.NyambiC.MuredziP.MalungaA.2014Proximate composition of pumpkin gourd (Cucurbita pepo) seeds from ZimbabweIntl. J. Nutr. Food Sci.3414851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NwofiaG.E.VictoriaN.N.BlessingK.N.2012Nutritional variation in fruits and seeds of pumpkins (Cucurbita Spp) accessions from NigeriaPak. J. Nutr.1110848

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PompelliM.F.MartinsS.C.AntunesW.C.ChavesA.R.DaMattaF.M.2010Photosynthesis and photoprotection in coffee leaves are affected by nitrogen and light availabilities in winter conditionsJ. Plant Physiol.1671314851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RashidM.2004Sabji biggan. University Press Dhaka Bangledesh

  • RekhaG.S.KaleenaP.K.ElumalaiD.SrikumaranM.P.MaheswariV.N.2018Effects of vermicompost and plant growth enhancers on the exo-morphological features of Capsicum annum (Linn.) pepperIntl. J. Recycle Org. Waste Agr.78388

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SadiqS.IzuagieT.ShuaibuM.DogoyaroM.I.GarbaA.AbubakarS.2013The Nutritional Evaluation and Medicinal Value of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera)Intl. J. Modern Chem.4314851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SarkarS.SinghS.R.SinghR.P.2003The effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on soil physical condition and the productivity of rice-lentil cropping sequence in IndiaJ. Agr. Sci.140414851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SharmaS.RaoR.2013Nutritional quality characteristics of pumpkin fruit as revealed by its biochemical analysisIntl. Food Res. J.20514851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SyamsiM.PradanaA.P.AdiwenaM.KartinaK.SantosoD.WijayaR.MalikiA.2017Effects of pruning on growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) ,ercy variety in the acid soil of north Kalimantan, IndonesiaCell Biol. Develop.11317

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YuK.FanQ.WangY.WeiJ.MaQ.YuD.LiJ.2013Function of leafy sepals in Paris polyphylla: Photosynthate allocation and partitioning to the fruit and rhizomeFunct. Plant Biol.40414851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VaidyanathanG.VijayalakshmiA.2017 Effect of vermicompost on growth and yield of tomatoEur. J. Pharm. Med. Res.4914851491

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

Contributor Notes

J.U. and S.S. are corresponding authors. E-mail: uddain.jasim@gmail.com or sreeramanan@usm.my.

  • View in gallery

    Effect of (A) pruning and (B) vermicompost on yield (t/ha) of zucchini squash.

  • View in gallery

    Relationship between fruit length and yield of zucchini squash.

  • View in gallery

    Relationship between fruit diameter and yield of zucchini squash.

  • View in gallery

    Relationship between the number of male flower and yield of zucchini squash.

  • View in gallery

    Relationship between the number of female flower and yield of zucchini squash.

  • View in gallery

    Relationship between the total number of fruit per plant and yield of zucchini squash.

  • View in gallery

    Relationship between individual fruit weight and yield of zucchini squash.

  • View in gallery

    Relationship between stem length and yield of zucchini squash.

  • View in gallery

    Relationship between stem diameter and yield of zucchini squash.

  • View in gallery

    Relationship between moisture (%) and yield of zucchini squash.

  • View in gallery

    Relationship between fat (%) and yield of zucchini squash.

  • View in gallery

    Relationship between protein (%) and yield of zucchini squash.

  • View in gallery

    Relationship between ash (%) and yield of zucchini squash.

  • View in gallery

    Relationship between crude fiber (%) and yield of zucchini squash.

  • View in gallery

    Relationship between carbohydrate (%) and yield of zucchini squash.

  • AdedapoA.A.FlorenceO.AnthonyJ.AfolayanJ.MasikaP.J.2009Antioxidant properties of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Celtis africanaRec. Nat. Prod.3114851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AksoyU.2001Ecological agriculture: An overview [in Turkish]. Second National Symposium on Ecological Agriculture 14–16 December Antalya Turkey

  • AnsariA.A.SukhrajK.2010Effect of vermiwash and vermicompost on soil parameters and productivity of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in GuyanaAfr. J. Agr. Res.517941798

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AnsariA.A.IsmailS.A.2012Role of earthworms in vermitechnologyAgr. Technol. Thail.8214851491

  • AOAC1990Official methods of analysis. 14th ed. p. 76–86. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Washington DC

  • AroraV.K.SinghC.B.SidhuA.S.ThindS.S.2011Irrigation, tillage and mulching effects on soybean yield and water productivity in relation to soil textureAgr. Water Mgt.98414851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AruahB.C.UguruM.I.OyigaB.C.2012Genetic variability and inter-relationship among some nigerian pumpkin accessions (Cucurbita spp.)Inter. J. Plant Breeding6114851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AwalinS.ShahjahanM.RoyA.C.AkterA.KabirM.H.2017Response of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) to foliar feeding with micronutrients and shoot pruningJ. Agr. Ecol. Res. Intl.1118

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AzarmiR.GiglouM.T.TaleshmikailD.2008Influence of vermicompost on soil chemical and physical properties in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) fieldAfrican J. Biotechnol.71414851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics2014The yearbook of agricultural statistics of Bangladesh. Ministry of Planning Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh

  • BoseT.K.KabirJ.DasP.JoyP.P.2000Tropical Horticulture Vol. 1. Naya Prakash Calcutta

  • ChandaG.C.BhuniaG.ChakrabortyS.K.2011The effect of vermicompost and other fertilizers on the cultivation of tomato plantsJ. Hort. For.34245

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChaouiH.I.ZibilskeL.M.OhnotT.2003Effects of earthworms cast and compost on soil microbial activity and plant nutrient availabilitySoil Biol. Biochem.35295302

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChowdhuryR.2004Effects of chemical fertilizers on the surrounding environment and the alternative to the chemical fertilizersIes. Envis. Newsletter7314851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CogginsC.W.JrLovattC.J.2014Plant growth regulators. In: L. Ferguson and E. Grafton-Cardwell (eds.). Citrus Production Manual. University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources Richmond CA

  • DeviS.VarmaL.R.2014Quality of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) as influenced by plant spacing and levels of pruning under greenhouseProgress. Hort.46114851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ElingeC.M.MuhammadA.AtikuF.A.ItodoAu.PenilI.J.SanniO.M.MbongoA.N.2012Proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds extractIntl. J. Plant Res.2514851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EsmaielpourB.HokmalipourS.2014The effects of pruning and potassium nutrition on some morphological traits and seedling properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.)Intl. J. Adv. Biol. Biomed. Res.2414851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EdwardsC.A.1998The use of earthworms in the breakdown and management of organic wastes p. 327–354. In: Earthworm Ecology. CRC Press Boca Raton FL

  • FedchenkovaY.A.BatyuchenkoI.KhvorostO.P.2015The study of elemental composition of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L)BICHИК ФAPMAЦIЇ18114851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GhaniA.MustafaI.ShahA.A.IslamT.AhmedI.2013Proximate composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) irrigated with municipal wastewater of Sargodha cityVegetable Sci.40214851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GuerreroR.D.2010Vermicompost production and its use for crop production in the PhilippinesIntl. J. Glob. Environ. Issues10314851491

  • HindsJ.WangK.H.HooksC.R.2016Growth and yield of zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) as influenced by a sunn hemp living mulchBiol. Agr. Hort.32114851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JaikishunS.HunteN.AnsariA.A.GomathinayagamS.2014Effect of vermiwash from different sources (Bagasse, Neem, Paddy Straw in different combinations) in controlling fungal diseases and growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits in GuyanaJ. Biol. Sci.14814851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JoshiJ.JaswinderS.AdarshP.V.2015Vermicompost as an effective organic fertilizer and biocontrol agent: Effect on growth, yield, and quality of the plantRev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol.14137159

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KaranjaJ.K.MugendiB.J.KhamisF.M.MuchugiA.N.2014Nutritional Evaluation of Some Kenyan Pumpkins (Cucurbita spp.)Intl. J. Agr. For.4314851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KathiravanK.VengedesanG.SingerS.SteinitzB.ParisH.S.GabaV.2006Adventitious regeneration in vitro occurs across a wide spectrum of squash (Cucurbita pepo) genotypesPlant Cell Tissue Organ Cult.85285295

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KumarA.BohraB.2006Green technology in relation to sustainable agriculture. In: A. Kumar and P. Dubey (eds.). Green technologies for sustainable agriculture. Daya Publishing Delhi India

  • KwiriR.WininiC.MusengiA.MudyiwaM.NyambiC.MuredziP.MalungaA.2014Proximate composition of pumpkin gourd (Cucurbita pepo) seeds from ZimbabweIntl. J. Nutr. Food Sci.3414851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NwofiaG.E.VictoriaN.N.BlessingK.N.2012Nutritional variation in fruits and seeds of pumpkins (Cucurbita Spp) accessions from NigeriaPak. J. Nutr.1110848

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PompelliM.F.MartinsS.C.AntunesW.C.ChavesA.R.DaMattaF.M.2010Photosynthesis and photoprotection in coffee leaves are affected by nitrogen and light availabilities in winter conditionsJ. Plant Physiol.1671314851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RashidM.2004Sabji biggan. University Press Dhaka Bangledesh

  • RekhaG.S.KaleenaP.K.ElumalaiD.SrikumaranM.P.MaheswariV.N.2018Effects of vermicompost and plant growth enhancers on the exo-morphological features of Capsicum annum (Linn.) pepperIntl. J. Recycle Org. Waste Agr.78388

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SadiqS.IzuagieT.ShuaibuM.DogoyaroM.I.GarbaA.AbubakarS.2013The Nutritional Evaluation and Medicinal Value of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera)Intl. J. Modern Chem.4314851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SarkarS.SinghS.R.SinghR.P.2003The effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on soil physical condition and the productivity of rice-lentil cropping sequence in IndiaJ. Agr. Sci.140414851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SharmaS.RaoR.2013Nutritional quality characteristics of pumpkin fruit as revealed by its biochemical analysisIntl. Food Res. J.20514851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SyamsiM.PradanaA.P.AdiwenaM.KartinaK.SantosoD.WijayaR.MalikiA.2017Effects of pruning on growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) ,ercy variety in the acid soil of north Kalimantan, IndonesiaCell Biol. Develop.11317

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YuK.FanQ.WangY.WeiJ.MaQ.YuD.LiJ.2013Function of leafy sepals in Paris polyphylla: Photosynthate allocation and partitioning to the fruit and rhizomeFunct. Plant Biol.40414851491

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VaidyanathanG.VijayalakshmiA.2017 Effect of vermicompost on growth and yield of tomatoEur. J. Pharm. Med. Res.4914851491

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 356 356 2
Full Text Views 56 56 24
PDF Downloads 37 37 18