Effects of Preharvest and Postharvest Applications of 1-Methylcyclopropene on Fruit Quality and Physiological Disorders of ‘Fuji’ Apples during Storage at Warm and Cold Temperatures

in HortScience

The effects of preharvest and postharvest treatments of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) in combination or alone on fruit quality and the incidence of physiological disorders during storage of ‘Fuji’ apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] at 20 and 0.5 °C were investigated. Preharvest 1-MCP (Harvista) treatments were applied 4 or 10 days before harvest (DBH), and then fruit were either untreated or treated with 1-MCP (SmartFresh) postharvest. Fruit were stored at 20 °C for up to 4 weeks or at 0.5 °C for up to 36 weeks. At harvest, starch pattern indices and watercore incidence and severity were lower in fruit with preharvest 1-MCP treatment applied 10 DBH than in untreated fruit and in fruit treated 4 DBH. At 20 °C, the combination of preharvest and postharvest 1-MCP treatments reduced the internal ethylene concentration (IEC) more than preharvest 1-MCP treatment alone, but not to a greater extent than postharvest 1-MCP treatment alone. Greasiness and watercore were reduced more by the combination of preharvest and postharvest 1-MCP treatments than by either treatment alone. However, preharvest and postharvest 1-MCP treatments, in combination or alone, did not consistently affect flesh firmness, titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids concentration, color a* values, or incidences of flesh browning, core browning, and stem-end flesh browning. At 0.5 °C, the combination of preharvest and postharvest 1-MCP treatments inhibited IECs and maintained firmness and TA more than no treatment or preharvest 1-MCP treatment alone. However, there was a lesser extent of differences than there was with postharvest 1-MCP treatment alone. Incidences of physiological disorders were not consistently affected by the preharvest and postharvest 1-MCP treatments. Overall, the results suggested that the preharvest 1-MCP treatment positively affected fruit quality attributes compared with no treatment during shelf life and long-term cold storage, but not as effectively as a combination of preharvest and postharvest 1-MCP treatments.

Contributor Notes

Funding for this research was provided by the NY Apple Research and Development Program, AgroFresh Solutions Inc., and the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Improving Quality and Reducing Losses in Specialty Fruit Crops through Storage Technologies (NE-1336 under 2013-14-483).

These authors contributed equally to this work.

Corresponding author. E-mail: chris.watkins@cornell.edu.

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Article Figures

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    Pearson correlation coefficient (r) matrix for fruit quality attributes and the incidence of physiological disorders with preharvest and postharvest 1-MCP treatments in combination or alone in ‘Fuji’ apples for up to 4 weeks at 20 °C. IEC, internal ethylene concentration; TA, titratable acidity; SSC, soluble solids concentration. Red and blue colors represent positive and negative correlation between factors. *, **, ***, or **** indicate statistically significant correlations at P < 0.05, 0.01, 0.001, or 0.0001, respectively.

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    Partial least squares regression scores (A) and loading (B) plots of models containing X-variables (fruit quality attributes and incidence of physiological disorders) and Y-variables [experimental factors: storage duration, ▪; preharvest 1-MCP (Harvista) treatment, ▲; postharvest 1-MCP (SmartFresh) treatment, ▼] for preharvest (Harvista, or H) and postharvest (SmartFresh, or SF) 1-MCP treatments in combination or alone in ‘Fuji’ apples at 20 °C. CB, core browning; FB, flesh browning; IEC, internal ethylene concentration; SEFB, stem-end flesh browning; SSC, soluble solids concentration; TA, titratable acidity; WCI, watercore incidence; WCS, watercore severity.

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    Pearson correlation coefficient (r) matrix for fruit quality attributes and the incidence of physiological disorders with preharvest (Harvista) and postharvest (SmartFresh) 1-MCP treatments in combination or alone in ‘Fuji’ apples stored in air for up to 36 weeks at 0.5 °C followed by 1 d at 20 °C. IEC, internal ethylene concentration; TA, titratable acidity; SSC, soluble solids concentration. Red and blue colors represent positive and negative correlations between factors. *, **, ***, or **** indicate statistically significant correlations at P < 0.05, 0.01, 0.001, or 0.0001, respectively.

  • View in gallery

    Partial least squares regression scores (A) and loading (B) plots of models containing X-variables (fruit quality attributes and incidence of physiological disorders) and Y-variables [experimental factors: cold storage duration, ▪; preharvest 1-MCP (Harvista) treatment, ▲; postharvest 1-MCP (SmartFresh) treatment, ▼] for preharvest (Harvista, or H) and postharvest (SmartFresh, or SF) 1-MCP treatments in combination or alone in ‘Fuji’ apples stored in air for up to 36 weeks at 0.5 °C followed by 1 d at 20 °C. IEC, internal ethylene concentration; SFB, stem-end flesh browning; SSC, soluble solids concentration; TA, titratable acidity; WCI, watercore incidence; WCS, watercore severity.

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