Influence of Seasonality in the Production and Quality of Annona squamosa L. Fruit of Different Sizes

in HortScience

Sugar apple fruit are widely appreciated because of their flavor and functional qualities. However, the final value of the fruit varies according to its physical, physicochemical, and organoleptic qualities. The production and attributes that make up the quality of fruit can be influenced by climatic seasonality in both seasons (dry and wet). Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate whether the production and quality of fruit production of different size classes of A. squamosa L. in two seasons are affected by climatic seasonality. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design, with 4 blocks and 10 plants per block. The variables evaluated were number of fruit per hectare, production, and yield. The postharvest evaluation of the fruit consisted of a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3 × 2 factorial scheme, which referred to the three sizes and two seasons, and evaluated fruit length and diameter; firmness; fruit, bark, and seed weight; number of seeds; soluble solids; hydrogen ionic potential (pH); titratable acidity (TA); and ratio. The 2014 season had larger fruit in relation to those of the 2015 season; conversely, it showed a lower number of fruit per plant, production, and yield, besides inferior organoleptic quality. Fruit of size class 2 stood out in the 2014 season because of their physical characteristics. However, they had inferior organoleptic quality when compared with fruit of the same size collected during the 2015 season. Fruit of size class 3 (≥8.1 cm) had greater firmness, providing longer durability and shelf life.

Contributor Notes

We thank the National Council of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), and the Government of the state of Roraima for financial support and scholarship.

Corresponding author. E-mail: eliasariel90@gmail.com.

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    Maximum, average, and minimum temperature; rainfall (RF); and relative humidity (RH) for the months evaluated in the experiment.

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    Vapor pressure deficit for the months evaluated in the experiment.

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    Classification of sugar apple fruit in three different size classes based on the equatorial diameter of the fruit: 1, small (≤6 cm); 2, medium (6.1–8.0 cm), and 3, large (≥8.1 cm).

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    Principal component (PC) analysis in the 2014 and 2015 seasons for different fruit sizes of sugar apples for the variables firmness (Firm), soluble solids (measured in degrees Brix), hue angle (h), diameter (Dia), bark weight (BM), fruit weight (FM), yield, fruit height (Alt), ratio, number of seeds (NS), seed weight (SM), luminosity (L), chromaticity (C), and hydrogen ionic potential (pH).

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