Effects of Triploidization of Loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.] on Flavonoids and Phenolics and Antioxidant Activities in Leaves and Flower Buds

in HortScience

Triploid loquat (2n = 3x = 51) has stronger growth vigor and larger leaves, flowers, and fruit compared with its diploid parental plant (2n = 2x = 34), but the effects of triploidization on the contents of flavonoids and phenolics in leaves and flowers, which are the most important antioxidant compounds for pharmacological applications, have not been reported. In this report, 58 triploid loquat genotypes and seven corresponding diploid parental cultivars were used to evaluate the effects of triploidization on the contents of total flavonoids and phenolics and the antioxidant activities of leaves and flower buds. The results showed that the contents of total flavonoids and phenolics and their corresponding antioxidant activities were higher in most of the triploid loquat genotypes than their diploid parents. The antioxidant activities of leaves and flower buds were significantly correlated with the total flavonoids and phenolics contents in both diploid loquat and triploid loquat. It could be inferred that triploidization could increase the contents of flavonoids and phenolics in leaves and flower buds of loquat. Notably, the contents of total flavonoids and phenolics of leaves in triploid genotype ‘H3/24’ were the highest, reaching 212.00 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g DW and 93.06 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g DW, respectively, which were significantly higher than those previously reported. Such a valuable trait may be stacked with other triploid traits that are already established, such as larger vegetative organs and better tolerance to various stresses, as a feasible strategy for breeding loquat cultivars with high pharmaceutical potency.

Contributor Notes

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31701876), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (XDJK2019AA001), Key Project of Chongqing Science & Technology Commission (cstc2018jscx-mszdX0054), and Project of Chongqing Science & Technology Commission (cstc2017jcyjAX0433).

Corresponding author. E-mail: qgguo@126.com.

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    The trees, shoots, leaves, flowers, and fruits of the triploid loquat genotype ‘H3/24’ and corresponding diploid loquat ‘Ruantiaobaisha’. (A1) Tree of ‘Ruantiaobaisha’. (A2) Tree of ‘H3/24’. (B1) Shoots of ‘Ruantiaobaisha’. (B2) Shoots of ‘H3/24’. (C1) Leaves of ‘Ruantiaobaisha’. (C2) Leaves of ‘H3/24’. (D1) Flowers of ‘Ruantiaobaisha’. (D2) Flowers of ‘H3/24’. (E1) Fruits of ‘Ruantiaobaisha’. (E2) Fruits of ‘H3/24’.

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    Total flavonoids and phenolics contents in extracts of leaves and flower buds of the seven diploid parental loquat cultivars. (A) Total flavonoids content. (B) Total phenolics content. Significant differences between means were determined using Tukey’s honestly significant difference test (n = 3). Different letters above the bars indicate that the means are significantly different (P < 0.05). Values are presented as mean (±sd).

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    Antioxidant activities in extracts of leaves and flower buds of the seven diploid parental loquat cultivars. (A) DPPH value. (B) FRAP value. Significant differences between means were determined using Tukey’s honestly significant difference test (n = 3). Different letters above the bars indicate that the means are significantly different (P < 0.05). Values are presented as mean (±sd).

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    The trees, shoots, leaves, flowers, and fruits of the triploid loquat genotype ‘Q27’ and corresponding diploid loquat ‘Changbai no. 1’. (A1) Tree of ‘Changbai no. 1’. (A2) Tree of ‘Q27’. (B1) Shoots of ‘Changbai no. 1’. (B2) Shoots of ‘Q27’. (C1) Leaves of ‘Changbai no. 1’. (C2) Leaves of ‘Q27’. (D1) Flowers of ‘Changbai no. 1’. (D2) Flowers of ‘Q27’. (E1) Fruits of ‘Changbai no. 1’. (E2) Fruits of ‘Q27’.

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    Trees, shoots, leaves, flowers, and fruits of the triploid loquat genotype ‘K3/59’ and corresponding diploid loquat ‘77-1’. (A1) Tree of ‘77-1’. (A2) Tree of ‘K3/59’. (B1) Shoots of ‘77-1’. (B2) Shoots of ‘K3/59’. (C1) Leaves of ‘77-1’. (C2) Leaves of ‘K3/59’. (D1) Flowers of ‘77-1’. (D2) Flowers of ‘K3/59’. (E1) Fruits of ‘77-1’. (E2) Fruits of ‘K3/59’.

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    Trees, shoots, leaves, flowers, and fruits of the triploid loquat genotype ‘Jinfeng’ and corresponding diploid loquat ‘D4/25’. (A1) Tree of ‘Jinfeng’. (A2) Tree of ‘D4/25’. (B1) Shoots of ‘Jinfeng’. (B2) Shoots of ‘D4/25’. (C1) Leaves of ‘Jinfeng’. (C2) Leaves of ‘D4/25’. (D1) Flowers of ‘Jinfeng’. (D2) Flowers of ‘D4/25’. (E1) Fruits of ‘Jinfeng’. (E2) Fruits of ‘D4/25’.

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    Trees, shoots, leaves, flowers, and fruits of the triploid loquat genotype ‘Dawuxing’ and corresponding diploid loquat ‘A3/22’. (A1) Tree of ‘Dawuxing’. (A2) Tree of ‘A3/22’. (B1) Shoots of ‘Dawuxing’. (B2) Shoots of ‘A3/22’. (C1) Leaves of ‘Dawuxing’. (C2) Leaves of ‘A3/22’. (D1) Flowers of ‘Dawuxing’. (D2) Flowers of ‘A3/22’. (E1) Fruits of ‘Dawuxing’. (E2) Fruits of ‘A3/22’.

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    Trees, shoots, leaves, flowers, and fruits of the triploid loquat genotype ‘Xiangzhong’ and corresponding diploid loquat ‘N17’. (A1) Tree of ‘Xiangzhong’. (A2) Tree of ‘N17’. (B1) Shoots of ‘Xiangzhong’. (B2) Shoots of ‘N17’. (C1) Leaves of ‘Xiangzhong’. (C2) Leaves of ‘N17’. (D1) Flowers of ‘Xiangzhong’. (D2) Flowers of ‘N17’. (E1) Fruits of ‘Xiangzhong’. (E2) Fruits of ‘N17’.

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    Trees, shoots, leaves, flowers, and fruits of the triploid loquat genotype ‘Longquan no. 1’ and corresponding diploid loquat ‘B3/53’. (A1) Tree of ‘Longquan no. 1’. (A2) Tree of ‘B3/53’. (B1) Shoots of ‘Longquan no. 1’. (B2) Shoots of ‘B3/53’. (C1) Leaves of ‘Longquan no. 1’. (C2) Leaves of ‘B3/53’. (D1) Flowers of ‘Longquan no. 1’. (D2) Flowers of ‘B3/53’. (E1) Fruits of ‘Longquan no. 1’. (E2) Fruits of ‘B3/53’.

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