Assessing Preharvest Field Temperature and At-harvest Fruit Quality for Prediction of Soft Scald Risk of ‘Honeycrisp’ Apple Fruit during Cold Storage

in HortScience

‘Honeycrisp’ apple is susceptible to the postharvest chilling disorder soft scald that renders fruit unmarketable. Reducing or preventing this disorder is an important component of ‘Honeycrisp’ postharvest management. In commercial settings, advanced fruit maturity and orchard history contribute to an estimation of soft scald susceptibility, but additional at-harvest information indicative of soft scald risk would enable better management decisions. In this study, we obtained fruit from commercial orchards for 3 successive years, and assessed field growing degree days (GDD), field chilling hours (CH), and fruit quality metrics at harvest, followed by soft scald incidence assessment at 12 weeks of cold storage. The analyses indicated starch index, soluble solids content (SSC), internal ethylene concentration, titratable acidity (TA), peel background color, firmness, GDD, or CH do not reliably indicate fruit susceptibility to soft scald. However, SSC and TA were elevated in fruit that later developed soft scald, and a higher number of GDD also sometimes preceded soft scald, which is consistent with advanced fruit maturity that can enhance soft scald risk. Overall, results suggest that other tools may be required to accurately predict postharvest soft scald on a quality control laboratory scale. The statistical analyses applied to the present study would have utility for assessing other soft scald prediction tools or markers.

Contributor Notes

This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Specialty Crops Research Initiative (project number 2010-51181-21446) and the Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission. We gratefully acknowledge editing assistance from Jinwook Lee, statistical guidance from Jerry Tangren, and technical assistance from Janie Countryman, Nate Sullivan, Dave Buchanan, and Karen Blaedow. We also thank the three anonymous reviewers whose suggestions improved this manuscript.

Corresponding author. E-mail: Rachel.Leisso@montana.edu.

Article Sections

Article Figures

  • View in gallery

    ‘Honeycrisp’ fruit was obtained from 15 orchards in Washington State in 2011 (one orchard with three successive harvests) (A), three orchards with three successive harvests each in 2012 (B), and four orchards in 2013 (one with three successive harvests) (C). Growing degree days (GDDs) and chilling hours for each orchard was obtained from the Washington State University AgWeatherNet station closest to each orchard (D).

  • View in gallery

    Soft scald percent incidence after 12 weeks of storage in the Fall of 2011 (A), 2012 (B), and 2013 (C).

  • View in gallery

    Boxplots indicate high-risk and low-risk values for field temperature data and at-harvest quality measures that were evaluated for their ability to predict incidence of soft scald at 12 weeks of storage. The dashed line indicates the threshold value for either low- or high-risk prediction. GDD = growing degree day; IEC = internal ethylene concentration; SSC = soluble solids concentration.

Article References

  • BarkerJ.1930Wastage in imported fruit; its nature, extent and preventionSpec. Rep. Dep. Scient. Ind. Res.38634635

  • DeEllJ.R.Ehsani-MoghaddamB.2010Preharvest 1-methylcyclopropene treatment reduces soft scald in ‘Honeycrisp’ apples during storageHortScience45414417

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeLongJ.M.PrangeR.K.HarrisonP.A.2004The influence of pre-storage delayed cooling on quality and disorder incidence in ‘Honeycrisp’ apple fruitPostharvest Biol. Technol.33175180

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • El-ShiekhA.F.TongC.B.S.LubyJ.J.HooverE.E.BedfordD.S.2002Storage potential of cold-hardy apple cultivarsJ. Amer. Pomol. Soc.563445

  • EtienneA.GénardM.LobitP.Mbeguié-A-MbéguiéD.BugaudC.2013What controls fleshy fruit acidity? A review of malate and citrate accumulation in fruit cellsJ. Expt. Bot.6414511469

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EvansK.BrutcherL.KonishiB.BarrittB.2010Correlation of sensory analysis with physical textural data from a computerized penetrometer in the Washington State University apple breeding programHortTechnology2010261029

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HanrahanI.2012Starch-iodine chart for Honeycrisp. 1 July 2016. <http://www.treefruitresearch.com/resources-a-downloads/starch-iodine-index-for-honeycrisp>

  • JanI.RabA.SajidM.2012Storage performance of apple cultivars harvested at different stages of maturityJ. Anim. Plant Sci.22438447

  • KaderA.A.1999Fruit maturity, ripening, and quality relationshipsActa Hort.485203208

  • LachapelleM.BourgeoisG.DeEllJ.StewardK.A.SeguinP.2013Modeling the effects of preharvest weather conditions on the incidence of soft scale in ‘Honeycrisp’ applesPostharvest Biol. Technol.855766

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LobitP.GernardM.SoingP.HabibR.2006Modelling malic acid accumulation in fruits: Relationships with organic acids, potassium, and temperatureJ. Expt. Bot.5714711483

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGuireR.G.1992Reporting of objective color measurementsHortScience2712541255

  • MohrB.C.MohrC.L.2011The Mohr Digi-Test (MDT) computerized agricultural penetrometer as an apple maturity tool. 4 Sept. 2018. <http://www.mohr-engineering.com/documents/MDTPosterPaper.pdf>

  • MoranR.DeEllJ.HaltemanW.2009Effects of preharvest precipitation, air temperature, and humidity on the occurrence of soft scald in ‘Honeycrisp’ applesHortScience4416451647

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MoranR.E.DeEllJ.R.MurrD.P.2010Effects of preconditioning and fruit maturity on the occurrence of soft scald and soggy breakdown in ‘Honeycrisp’ applesHortScience4517191722

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PlaggeH.H.ManeyT.J.1924Apple storage investigations fourth progress report. I. Jonathan-spot and soft scald. II. Apple-scald and internal breakdown. Iowa Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 222

  • RobinsonT.LopezS.2009Cropload and nutrition affect Honeycrisp apple qualityNew York Fruit Quart.172428

  • RobinsonT.WatkinsC.B.2003Cropload of Honeycrisp affects not only fruit size but many quality attributesNew York Fruit Quart.11710

  • SnowdonA.L.1990A color atlas of post-harvest diseases and disorders of fruits and vegetables Volume 1. CRC Press Boca Raton FL

  • TongC.B.S.BedfordD.S.LubyJ.J.PropsomF.M.BeaudryR.M.MattheisJ.P.WatkinsC.B.WeisS.A.2003Location and temperature effects on soft scald in ‘Honeycrisp’ applesHortScience3811531155

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TongC.B.S.ChangH.-Y.BoldtJ.K.MaY.B.DeEllJ.R.MoranR.E.BourgeoisG.PlouffeD.2016Diffuse flesh browning in ‘Honeycrisp’ apple fruit is associated with low temperatures during fruit growthHortScience5112561264

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WatkinsC.NockJ.WeisS.A.JayantyS.S.BeaudryR.M.2004Storage temperature, diphenylamine, and pre-storage delay effects on soft scald, soggy breakdown, and bitter pit of ‘Honeycrisp’ applesPostharvest Biol. Technol.32213221

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WatkinsC.B.IungermanK.A.BeaudryR.M.MoranR.E.2005Harvest date effects on maturity, quality, and storage disorders of ‘Honeycrisp’ applesHortScience40164169

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WatkinsC.B.NockJ.F.LungermanK.A.2003Harvest date effects on maturity, quality and storage disorders of Honeycrisp apples from the Champlain ValleyNew York Fruit Quart.112326

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • XiaJ.BroadhurstD.I.WilsonM.WishartD.S.2012Translational biomarker discovery in clinical metabolomics: An introductory tutorialMetabolomics9280299

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Article Information

Google Scholar

Related Content

Article Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 116 116 29
Full Text Views 21 21 3
PDF Downloads 10 10 2