Effect of Insecticide Drench Applications on Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, Pupae in Growing Media

in HortScience

Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops. The primary method of managing western flower thrips populations involves applications of insecticides; however, there is no information associated with the effect of the insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, or the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, on western flower thrips pupae in growing media. Therefore, four laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of pyriproxyfen and I. fumosorosea applied as a drench to growing media on western flower thrips pupae. Expt. 1 evaluated the efficacy of pyriproxyfen and I. fumosorosea on western flower thrips pupae. Based on the results from Expt. 1, Expt. 2 assessed the effect of pyriproxyfen in two growing media (LC1 and BM1) on western flower thrips pupae. Expts. 3 and 4 determined the residual activity of pyriproxyfen in growing media on western flower thrips pupae 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after treatments were applied. The pyriproxyfen treatment resulted in a significantly lower estimated mean probability of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards (17%) compared with the water control (59%), untreated check (88%), and two I. fumosorosea treatments (46% for 1.0 g and 41% for 2.0 g of Ancora) in Expt. 1. However, for the two growing media in Expt. 2, the estimated mean probability of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards was not significantly different between the pyriproxyfen treatment (LC1 = 15%; BM1 = 12%) and the water control (LC1 = 41%; BM1 = 24%). For either the pyriproxyfen treatment or the untreated check, there was no evidence of a significant difference between the two growing media on the estimated mean probability of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards. Furthermore, there was no evidence of any residual activity 3 days after drench applications of pyriproxyfen. The results of the study have demonstrated that drench applications of pyriproxyfen are not affecting survival of western flower thrips pupae.

Contributor Notes

We thank Drs. Mary Beth Kirkham, Department of Agronomy and Nathan Herrick, Department of Entomology at Kansas State University (Manhattan, KS) for reviewing an initial draft of the manuscript. We also want to thank OHP, Inc. (Mainland, PA) for providing financial support to conduct the study.

Corresponding author. E-mail: rcloyd@ksu.edu

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    Estimated mean probability (95% confidence intervals) of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, adults captured on yellow sticky cards (YSC) associated with each treatment: 1.0 g Ancora [Isaria fumosorosea Apopka Strain 97 (Ancora: OHP, Inc., Mainland, PA) at 1.0 g/946 mL], 2.0 g Ancora [I. fumosorosea Apopka Strain 97 at 2.0 g/946 mL], Fulcrum [pyriproxyfen (Fulcrum: OHP, Inc.) at 0.14 mL/946 mL], an untreated check, and a water control. Estimated means followed by different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) among the treatments.

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    Estimated mean probability (95% confidence intervals) of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, adults captured on yellow sticky cards (YSC) for each treatment [pyriproxyfen (Fulcrum: OHP, Inc., Mainland, PA) at 0.14 mL/946 mL, an untreated check, and a water control] within each growing medium (BM1—Berger BM1 All-Purpose Mix; Berger, Saint-Modeste, Quebec, Canada, and LC1—Sunshine LC1 RSi Professional Growing Mix; SunGro Horticulture Canada Ltd., Seba Beach, Alberta, Canada). Estimated means followed by different lowercase or uppercase letters within each growing medium indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) among the treatments.

  • View in gallery

    Estimated mean probability (95% confidence intervals) of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, adults captured on yellow sticky cards (YSC) for each growing medium (BM1—Berger BM1 All-Purpose Mix; Berger, Saint-Modeste, Quebec, Canada) and LC1—Sunshine LC1 RSi Professional Growing Mix; SunGro Horticulture Canada Ltd., Seba Beach, Alberta, Canada) within each treatment [pyriproxyfen (Fulcrum: OHP, Inc., Mainland, PA) at 0.14 mL/946 mL, an untreated check, and a water control]. Estimated means followed by different lowercase or uppercase letters within each treatment indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) between the two growing media.

  • View in gallery

    Estimated mean probability (95% confidence intervals) of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, adults captured on yellow sticky cards (YSC) for each treatment [pyriproxyfen (Fulcrum: OHP, Inc., Mainland, PA) at 0.14 mL/946 mL, an untreated check, and a water control] 7 and 14 d after treatment application. Estimated means followed by different lowercase or uppercase letters within each day after treatment application indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) among the treatments.

  • View in gallery

    Estimated mean probability (95% confidence intervals) of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, adults captured on yellow sticky cards (YSC) for each treatment [pyriproxyfen (Fulcrum: OHP, Inc., Mainland, PA) at 0.14 mL/946 mL, an untreated check, and a water control] 3 and 5 d after treatment application. Estimated means followed by different lowercase or uppercase letters within each day after treatment application indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) among the treatments.

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