Methyl bromide (MeBr) was identified as a stratospheric ozone depletory; therefore, the use of MeBr was phased out in the United States in 2005. Chloropicrin (CP) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) are MeBr replacements. A mixture of CP and AITC is commonly applied to broaden the pest control spectrum. These two fumigants have low soil mobility; however, their efficacy could be improved if their soil mobility were enhanced. This research was conducted to study the effects of surfactants applied at 5% (v/v) for CP mobility and AITC mobility in soils. Mobility of the CP/AITC mixture applied with a nonionic surfactant comprising oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids (nonionic-1) and mobility of the CP/AITC mixture applied with a nonionic surfactant comprising C9 hydrocarbon aromatics and calcium alkylarylsuphonate (nonionic-2) were compared with mobility of the CP/AITC mixture applied without surfactants in three soils (Elder sandy loam, Chualar loam, and Blanco clay loam) during a laboratory study. Nonionic-1 surfactant increased the concentration of total leachate collected for AITC by five and CP by 11 compared with CP/AITC applied alone. Surfactants may influence the fumigant mobility in soil by affecting the sorption/desorption equilibrium. Our research suggested that increased AITC mobility and CP mobility in soil with the addition of adding nonionic-1 surfactant may be due to the adsorption behavior of the surfactant in the soil and the solubilizing capability of the surfactant with pesticides.
We thank Isagro USA for partially funding the study. No conflicts of interest have been declared.
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KloseS.AjwaH.A.BrowneG.T.SubbaraoK.V.MartinF.N.FennimoreS.A.WesterdahlB.B.2008Dose response of weed seeds, plant-parasitic nematodes, and pathogens to twelve rates of metam sodium in a California soilPlant Dis.9215371546
Klose,S.Ajwa,H.A.Browne,G.T.Subbarao,K.V.Martin,F.N.Fennimore,S.A.Westerdahl,B.B.2008Dose response of weed seeds, plant-parasitic nematodes, and pathogens to twelve rates of metam sodium in a California soil9215371546)| false
PapiernikS.K.DunganR.S.ZhengW.GuoM.LeschS.M.YatesS.R.2004Effect of application variables on emissions and distribution of fumigants applied via subsurface drip irrigationEnviron. Sci. Technol.3854895496
Papiernik,S.K.Dungan,R.S.Zheng,W.Guo,M.Lesch,S.M.Yates,S.R.2004Effect of application variables on emissions and distribution of fumigants applied via subsurface drip irrigation3854895496)| false