Soil Mobility of Allyl Isothiocyanate and Chloropicrin as Influenced by Surfactants and Soil Texture

in HortScience

Methyl bromide (MeBr) was identified as a stratospheric ozone depletory; therefore, the use of MeBr was phased out in the United States in 2005. Chloropicrin (CP) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) are MeBr replacements. A mixture of CP and AITC is commonly applied to broaden the pest control spectrum. These two fumigants have low soil mobility; however, their efficacy could be improved if their soil mobility were enhanced. This research was conducted to study the effects of surfactants applied at 5% (v/v) for CP mobility and AITC mobility in soils. Mobility of the CP/AITC mixture applied with a nonionic surfactant comprising oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids (nonionic-1) and mobility of the CP/AITC mixture applied with a nonionic surfactant comprising C9 hydrocarbon aromatics and calcium alkylarylsuphonate (nonionic-2) were compared with mobility of the CP/AITC mixture applied without surfactants in three soils (Elder sandy loam, Chualar loam, and Blanco clay loam) during a laboratory study. Nonionic-1 surfactant increased the concentration of total leachate collected for AITC by five and CP by 11 compared with CP/AITC applied alone. Surfactants may influence the fumigant mobility in soil by affecting the sorption/desorption equilibrium. Our research suggested that increased AITC mobility and CP mobility in soil with the addition of adding nonionic-1 surfactant may be due to the adsorption behavior of the surfactant in the soil and the solubilizing capability of the surfactant with pesticides.

Contributor Notes

We thank Isagro USA for partially funding the study. No conflicts of interest have been declared.

Corresponding author. E-mail: kalkhatib@ucdavis.edu.

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    First-order reaction rate model fitting of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in leachate when applied alone, with nonionic-1, or with nonionic-2 in Elder sandy loam soil (A), Chualar loam soil (B), and Blanco clay loam soil (C). se bars are not shown for clarity of the graph.

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    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and bromide tracer concentration in soil leachate collected over time from Elder sandy loam soil (A), Chualar loam soil (B), and Blanco clay loam soil (C).

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    Average time in minutes required to collect leachate fractions from Elder sandy loam soil (A), Chualar loam soil (B), and Blanco clay loam soil (C). Fumigant was applied alone or in combination with nonionic-1 surfactant or nonionic-2 surfactant. se bars are not shown for clarity of the graph.

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    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) concentration in soil column segments of Elder sandy loam soil (A), Chualar loam soil (B), and Blanco clay loam soil (C). Each column was divided into five equal segments. Each soil segment is 3 cm thick.

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    First-order reaction rate model fitting for chloropicrin (CP) in leachate when applied alone, with nonionic-1, and with nonionic-2 in Elder sandy loam soil (A), Chualar loam soil (B), and Blanco clay loam soil (C). se bars are not shown for clarity of the graph.

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    Chloropicrin (CP) and bromide tracer concentrations in soil leachate collected over time from Elder sandy loam soil (A), Chualar loam soil (B), and Blanco clay loam soil (C). CP was applied alone or in combination with nonionic-1 or nonionic-2.

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    Chloropicrin (CP) concentration in soil column segments of Elder sandy loam soil (A), Chualar loam soil (B), and Blanco clay loam soil (C). Each column was divided into five equal segments. Each soil segment is 3 cm thick.

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