Net Houses Effects on Microclimate, Production, and Plant Protection of White-fleshed Pitaya

in HortScience

To evaluate the comprehensive response of commercial cultivation of the white-fleshed pitaya (Hylocereus undatus ‘VN White’) under net house in Taiwan, experiments were conducted during the natural reproductive period (from June to Sept. 2016) with fruits grown within net houses (either 16 or 24 mesh insect-proof netting, without fruit bagging) or in an open field (the control, without netting, with fruit bagging). The effects of netting on microclimate, phenological period, flowering (floral bud emergence) of current and noncurrent cladodes (shoots) (2- to 3-year-old), fruit quality, market acceptability, pests and diseases control, and level of sunburn were investigated. Indoor solar radiation in the 16 and 24 mesh net houses were 78.12% and 75.03%, respectively, and the sunlight intensities [photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), μmol·m−2·s−1] were 76.03% and 73.00%, respectively, that of control. The maximum daily temperature for the 16 and 24 mesh net houses was greater than that of the control. However, there were no significant differences in daily average temperature, minimum temperature, or relative humidity (RH). The first flowering cycle (12 June 2016) and last flowering cycle (11 Sept. 2016) in both net houses were the same as those in the control. The accumulative flowering of current cladodes was unaffected by net covering, but that of noncurrent-year cladodes in both net houses was lower than that in the control. Although the L* and C* values of fruit color in the 16 and 24 mesh net houses were lower than those in the control, the fruits still had commercial value. The average fruit weight of the 16 mesh net house was significantly greater than that of the control. Average total soluble solid (TSS) content, TSS content at the fruit center, and titratable acidity were unaffected. In addition, the 16 mesh net house blocked some large pests without exacerbating disease or sunburn. Our findings suggest that 16 mesh net houses may be useful for white-fleshed pitaya cultivation during its natural reproductive period in subtropical Taiwan.

Contributor Notes

This study was funded by the Chung Cheng Agriculture Science and Social Welfare Foundation, Taiwan, Republic of China. Project code: 105- Chung Cheng- A- 3. (to J.C. Chang).

Huey-Lin Lin and Cheng-Chin Chen are gratefully acknowledged for their comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. Thanks are extended to Ji-Fang Hung for providing the experimental filed and practical assistances.

Corresponding author. E-mail: jerchiachang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw.

Article Sections

Article Figures

  • View in gallery

    The ‘VN White’ white-fleshed pitaya grown in an open field (A), 16 mesh net house (B), and 24 mesh net house (C) and fruit production during the natural reproductive season.

  • View in gallery

    Visual assessment of sunburn damage to ‘VN White’ white-fleshed pitaya cladodes. Ranked from 0 to 5: level 0: normal (no damage) (A); level 1: small-scale browning (B); level 2: large-scale browning (C); level 3: small-scale bleaching (D); level 4: large-scale bleaching (E); and necrosis (F).

  • View in gallery

    The daily maximum, average, and minimum air temperature and global radiation changes in the net houses during the natural flowering and fruiting periods of ‘VN White’ white-fleshed pitaya. Because there were no significant differences in the average or minimum air temperature among treatments, data were combined and are presented as means. 24 mesh = 24 mesh net house; 16 mesh = 16 mesh net house; OF = open field.

  • View in gallery

    The average diurnal change of air temperature (A) and relative humidity (B) in the net houses during the natural growing season of ‘VN White’ white-fleshed pitaya. The values represent the mean ± 95% confidence intervals (n = 122). The black and white bars of top side indicate the average night and day time, respectively.

  • View in gallery

    Effect of net house cultivations and cladode ages on flowering percentage of ‘VN White’ white-fleshed pitaya from 12 June 2016 to 25 Sept. 2016. Values are mean ± se of seven to eight replication analyses for the current-year (A) and noncurrent-year (B) cladodes.

Article References

  • ArthursS.P.StampsR.H.GigliaF.F.2013Environmental modification inside photoselective shadehousesHortScience48975979

  • BockC.H.PooleG.H.ParkerP.E.GottwaldT.R.2010Plant disease severity estimated visually, by digital photography and image analysis, and by hyperspectral imagingCrit. Rev. Plant Sci.2959107

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CastellanoS.RussoG.Scarascia MugnozzaG.2006The influence of construction parameters on radiometric performances of agricultural netsActa Hort.718283290

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChangF. R.YenC. R.1997Flowering and fruit growth of pitaya (Hylocereus undatus Britt. & Rose)J. Chinese Soc. Hort. Sci.434692700

  • ChangL.H.WangD.N.2004Simple facility cultivation of Indian jujube p. 296–298. In: J.C. Tsai C.Y. Lin T.F. Sheen and C.H. Hsiao (eds.). Protected Horticulture Science. Chi Seng Water Mgt. Res. Dev. Foundation Taipei Taiwan

  • ChangP.T.HsiehC.C.JiangY.L.2016Responses of ‘Shih Huo Chuan’ pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britt. & Rose) to different degrees of shading netsScientia Hort.198154162

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChiuY.C.LinC.P.HsuM.C.LiuC.P.ChenD.Y.LiuP.C.2015Cultivation and management of pitaya. Taiwan Agr. Res. Inst. Tainan Taiwan

  • ChenM.S.2017The development course of pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) off-season regulation techniques in Taiwan. Spec. Publ. Taichung DARES No. 134. Taichung District Agr. Research Ext. Sta

  • ChenY.C.LinY.Y.2016Research on preventing sunburn damages on the cladodes of pitaya by shading treatmentsRes. Bul. Taitung District Agr. Improv. Sta.264158

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChuY.C.ChangJ.C.2017Assessment of feasibility for guava (Psidium guajava) grown in the fixed structure of field net-houseActa Hort.1166101106

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChuY.C.LeeW.H.ChangJ.C.2015Sustaining and improving white pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) production under abiotic stress environments: A case study in Penghu Taiwan. Intl. Wkshp. Proc. Improving Pitaya Production and Mtg. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center Taipei Taiwan

  • FangH.H.LeeW.L.HuangC.C.LiangY.S.2016Effect of bagging materials on pericarp coloration and pesticide residues of ‘Yu-Her Pao’ litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn) fruitJ. Taiwan Agr.65184193

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Food and Fertilizer Technology Center2018Dragon fruit production in Vietnam: Achievements and challenges. Production policy. 8 Dec. 2018. <http://ap.fftc.agnet.org/ap_db.php?id=873>

  • GrudaN.TannyJ.2015Protected crops—recent advances, innovative technologies and future challengesActa Hort.1107271278

  • HaijunL.CohenS.LemcoffJ.H.IsraeliY.TannyJ.2015Sap flow, canopy conductance and microclimate in a banana screenhouseAgr. For. Meteorol.201165175

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HsuW.T.2004Investigations on culture growth habits and phenology in pitaya (Hylocereus spp.). Natl. Taiwan Univ. Taiwan MS thesis

  • HuangS.T.LinH.L.2008The effect of bagging and girding on Hylocereus undatus fruit growth and developmentHort. NCHU33115

  • JamaludinN.A.DingP.HamidA.A.2010Physico-chemical and structural changes of red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) during fruit developmentJ. Sci. Food Agr.91278285

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JiangY.L.LiaoY.Y.LinT.S.LeeC.L.YenC.R.YangW.J.2012The photoperiod-regulated bud formation of red pitaya (Hylocereus sp.)HortScience4710631067

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JiangY.L.LiaoY.Y.LinM.T.YangW.J.2016Bud Development in response to night-breaking treatment in the non-inductive period in red pitaya (Hylocereus sp.)HortScience51690696

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KhaimovA.MizrahiY.2006Effects of day-length, radiation, flower thinning and growth regulators on flowering of the vine cacti Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthusJ. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol.81465470

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khaimov-ArmozaA.NovákO.StrnadM.MizrahiY.2012The role of endogenous cytokinins and environmental factors in flowering in the vine cactus Hylocereus undatusIsr. J. Plant Sci.60371383

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KhandakerL.AkondA.M.ObaS.2009Air temperature and sunlight intensity of different growing period affects the biomass, leaf color and betacyanin pigment accumulations in red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.)J. Cent. Eur. Agr.10439448

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LaiC.W.2017Assessing the genetic relationships of mulberry (Mours spp) in Taiwan using RAPD markers and the feasibility of growing pitaya (Hylocereus spp) in a field-net-house during natural production season. Natl. Chung Hsing Univ. Taichung Taiwan MS thesis

  • McGuireR.G.1992Reporting of objective color measurementsHortScience2712541255

  • MizrahiY.2015Thirty-one years of research and development in the cacti pitaya in Israel. Intl. Wkshp. Proc.: Improving Pitaya Production and Mtg. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center Taipei Taiwan

  • MizrahiY.NerdA.NobelP.S.1997Cacti as cropsHort. Rev.18291320

  • MupambiG.AnthonyB.M.LayneD.R.MusacchiS.SerraS.SchmidtT.KalcsitsL.A.2018The influence of protective netting on tree physiology and fruit quality of apple: A reviewScientia Hort.2366072

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NerdA.GutmanF.MizrahiY.1999Ripening and postharvest behaviour of fruits of two Hylocereus species (Cactaceae)Postharvest Biol. Technol.173945

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NerdA.SitritY.KaushikR.A.MizrahiY.2002High summer temperatures inhibit flowering in vine pitaya crops (Hylocereus spp.)Scientia Hort.96343350

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NobelP.S.De la BarreraE.2002High temperature and net CO2 uptake, growth, and stem damage for the hemiepiphytic cactus Hylocereus undatusBiotropica34225231

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NobelP.S.De la BarreraE.2004CO2 uptake by the cultivated hemiepiphytic cactus, Hylocereus undatusAnn. Appl. Biol.14418

  • NomuraK.IdeM.YonemotoY.2005Changes in sugars and acids in pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) fruit during developmentJ. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol.80711715

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OrtizT.A.TakahashiL.S.A.2015Physical and chemical characteristics of pitaya fruits at physiological maturityGenet. Mol. Res.141442214439

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ortiz-HernándezY.D.Carrillo-SalazarJ.A.2012Pitaya (Hylocereus spp.): A short reviewComun. Sci.3220237

  • PhebeD.ChewM.K.SurainiA.A.LaiO.M.JannaO.A.2009Red-fleshed pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) fruit colour and betacyanin content depend on maturityIntl. Food Res. J.16233242

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RavehE.NerdA.MizrahiY.1998Responses of two hemiepiphytic fruit crop cacti to different degrees of shadeScientia Hort.73151164

  • ShahakY.GussakovskyE.E.GalE.GanelevinR.2004ColoerNets: Crop protection and light quality manipulation in one technologyActa Hort.659143151

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShenY.2004Physical characteristics of climate and crop growth p. 106–132. In: J.C. Tsai C.Y. Lin T.F. Sheen and C.H. Hsiao (eds.). Protected Horticulture Science. Chi Seng Water Mgt. Res. Dev. Foundation Taipei Taiwan

  • SuhD.H.LeeS.HeoD.Y.KimY.ChoS.K.LeeS.LeeC.H.2014Metabolite profiling of red and white pitayas (Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus) for comparing betalain biosynthesis and antioxidant activityJ. Agr. Food Chem.6287648771

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TannyJ.2013Microclimate and evapotranspiration of crops covered by agricultural screens: A reviewBiosyst. Eng.1142643

  • TannyJ.CohenS.TeitelM.2003Screenhouse microclimate and ventilation: An experimental studyBiosyst. Eng.84331341

  • TannyJ.TeitelM.BarakM.EsquiraY.AmirR.2008The effects of screenhouse height on microclimateActa Hort.801107114

  • TranD.YenC.ChenY.H.2015aEffects of bagging on fruit characteristics and physical fruit protection in red pitaya (Hylocereus spp.)Biol. Agr. Hort.31158166

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TranD.H.YenC.R.ChenY.K.H.2015bEffect of pollination method and pollen source on fruit set and growth of red-peel pitaya (Hylocereus spp.) in TaiwanJ. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol.90254258

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TsengS.F.YuC.M.2015Dragon fruit industry profile and its assistance measures in Taiwan. Spec. Publ. TARI. No. 187. Fengshan Trop. Hort. Expt. Branch

  • WangD.N.2004Net-house cultivation of papaya p. 293–296. In: J.C. Tsai C.Y. Lin T. F. Sheen and C.H. Hsiao (eds.). Protected Horticulture Science. Chi Seng Water Mgt. Res. Dev. Foundation Taipei Taiwan

  • WangL.GongW.MaY.HuB.ZhangM.2014Photosynthetically active radiation and its relationship with global solar radiation in Central ChinaIntl. J. Biometeorol.5812651277

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WuC.H.XuJ.J.TsaiI.C.YehW.P.LinH.L.2017Effects of net house culture on the plant growth and fruit development of ‘Jen-Ju Bar’ guava (Psidium guajava ‘Jen-Ju’)Acta Hort.11668792

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZeeF.YenC.R.NishinaM.2004Pitaya (dragon fruit strawberry pear). University of Hawaii. Honolulu HI (Fruits Nuts; FN-9)

Article Information

Google Scholar

Related Content

Article Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 94 94 94
Full Text Views 19 19 19
PDF Downloads 11 11 11