Comparison of Sole-source and Supplemental Lighting on Callus Formation and Initial Rhizogenesis of Gaura and Salvia Cuttings

in HortScience

Variability in outdoor daily temperatures and photosynthetic daily light integrals (DLIs) from early spring to late fall limits the ability of propagators to accurately control propagation environments to consistently callus, root, and yield compact herbaceous perennial rooted liners. We evaluated and compared the effects of sole-source lighting (SSL) delivered from red (R) and blue (B) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to supplemental lighting (SL) provided by high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps on herbaceous perennial cutting morphology, physiology, and growth during callusing and initial rhizogenesis. Cuttings of perennial sage (Salvia nemorosa L. ‘Lyrical Blues’) and wand flower (Gaura lindheimeri Engelm. and A. Gray ‘Siskiyou Pink’) were propagated in a walk-in growth chamber under multilayer SSL provided by LEDs with [R (660 nm)]:[B (460 nm)] light ratios (%) of 100:0 (R100:B0), 75:25 (R75:B25), 50:50 (R50:B50), or 0:100 (R0:B100) delivering 60 µmol·m−2·s–1 for 16 hours (total DLI of 3.4 mol·m−2·d−1). In a glass-glazed greenhouse (GH control), cuttings were propagated under ambient solar light and day-extension SL provided by HPS lamps delivering 40 µmol·m−2·s–1 to provide a 16-hour photoperiod (total DLI of 3.3 mol·m−2·d−1). At 10 days after sticking cuttings, callus diameter and rooting percentage were similar among all light-quality treatments. For instance, callus diameter, a measure of growth, of wand flower cuttings increased from an average 1.7 mm at stick (0 day) to a range of 2.7 to 2.9 mm at 10 days after sticking, regardless of lighting treatment. Relative leaf chlorophyll content was generally greater under SSL R75:B25 or R50:B50 than all other light-quality treatments. However, stem length of perennial sage and wand flower cuttings propagated under SSL R50:B50 at 10 days were 21% and 30% shorter and resulted in 50% and 8% greater root biomass, respectively, compared with those under SL. The herbaceous perennial cuttings propagated in this study under SSL R50:B50 were of similar quality or more compact compared with those under SL, indicating that callus induction and initial rooting can occur under LEDs in a multilayer SSL propagation system.

Contributor Notes

We gratefully acknowledge Dr. Brian Jackson, Dr. William Fonteno, and Laura Kaderabek for propagation substrate analysis. We thank Ball Horticultural Co., Inc. for plant material; Sun Gro Horticulture for substrate; Ludvig Svensson US, Inc. for shade cloth; J.R. Peters, Inc. for fertilizer; and the Fred C. Gloeckner Foundation, Inc. and the New Hampshire Plant Growers Association for financial support. The use of trade names in this publication does not imply endorsement by Michigan State University of products named or criticism of similar ones not mentioned.

Corresponding author. E-mail: rglopez@msu.edu

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    (AE) Spectral quality of supplemental light (SL) from high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps in the greenhouse (A) or sole-source light (SSL) from light-emitting diodes (LED) arrays providing [R (660 nm)]: blue [B (460 nm)] light ratios (%) of 100:0 [R100:B0 (B)], 75:25 [R75:B25 (C)], 50:50 [R50:B50 (D)], or 0:100 [R0:B100 (E)] at a PPF from 400 to 700 nm of 60 µmol·m−2·s–1 at cutting height in a growth chamber.

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    Callus diameter (A, B) and leaf relative chlorophyll content (RCC) (C, D) of perennial sage (Salvia nemorosa L. ‘Lyrical Blues’) and wand flower (Gaura lindheimeri Engelm. and A. Gray ‘Siskiyou Pink’) cuttings measured at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 d after sticking. Cuttings were propagated in a greenhouse at 21 °C under ambient solar light and supplemental light (SL) delivered from high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps or in a growth chamber at 21 °C under sole-source light (SSL) from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with red:blue light ratios (%) of 100:0 (R100:B0), 0:100 (R0:B100), 75:25 (R75:B25), or 50:50 (R50:B50) with a 16-h photoperiod (0600 to 2200 hr). Propagation substrate was heated to 24 °C. Error bars indicate ±se. Means were separated within each day. For each SSL LED treatment, means sharing lower-case letters are not significantly different by Tukey’s honest significant difference (hsd) test at P ≤ 0.05. A t test was used to compare SSL treatment means to SL treatment means and an asterisk (*) indicates significant difference based on lsd at P ≤ 0.05.

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