Historical and Molecular Evidence of Genetic Identity of Macadamia Cultivars HAES741 and HAES660

in HortScience

The Hawaiian cultivars Keaau (HAES660) and Mauka (HAES741) were selected by the University of Hawaii—released in 1966 and 1977, respectively—and have been used extensively in macadamia orchards throughout the world. Recent molecular evidence suggests that these two cultivars are almost identical genetically; however, commercially they have been considered phenotypically different. This study reviews available molecular, historical, and phenotypic evidence to examine the hypothesis that these two cultivars are the same genotype. Phenotypic variability for morphological traits was observed in a replicated trial at Wolvi, QLD. Historical evidence suggests that both ‘HAES660’ and ‘HAES741’ were derived from the same orchard. We identified strong genetic and phenotypic similarities between these cultivars, with variability in some simple traits. This study provides evidence that these two cultivars are isogenic or near isogenic and may have been derived from the same plant source.

Contributor Notes

This paper was presented as a part of the 2017 International Macadamia Research Symposium, 13–14 Sept. 2017, Big Island, HI.

This research has been funded by Hort Innovation Australia, using the macadamia research and development levy, and by contributions from the Australian Government. Hort Innovation is the grower-owned, not-for-profit research and development corporation for Australian horticulture.

We thank the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, QLD, Australia, for allowing us to use the archived yield data for this study. We also thank to Lindsay Bryen for providing information about the phenotypic characteristics of ‘HAES741’ and ‘HAES660’.

Corresponding author. E-mail: m.alam@uq.edu.au.

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    Entry in University of Hawaii–Hawaiian Agricultural Research Station original selection book for initial field selection of ‘HAES660’ in Deschwanden orchard.

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    Entry in University of Hawaii–Hawaiian Agricultural Research Station original selection book for initial field selection of ‘HAES741’ in Deschwanden orchard.

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    Variability in nut and kernel size in ‘HAES660’ and ‘HAES741’. (A1) ‘HAES660’ nuts. (A2) ‘HAES660’ kernels. (B1) ‘HAES741’ nuts. (B2) ‘HAES741 kernels.

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    Genetic relationships between macadamia cultivars, including HAES660, HAES741, and other cultivars, based on an unweighted neighbor-joining dendrogram developed with DARwin 6.0 software using 4276 silicoDArT markers (https://doi.org/10.14264/uql.2018.394). Replicated cultivars are separated by different colors (see color version online). Rx indicates biological replicate; Rx_y indicates technical replicate.

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    Composite AB3730 Genetic Analyser electropherograms comparing microsatellite marker results for cultivar HAES660 (top) and HAES741 (bottom). Peaks represent alleles from 15 loci.

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