The genus Chrysogonum is native to the eastern United States. Three entities have been recognized—either as three varieties of Chrysogonum virginianum or as two species, one of them with two varieties. The current study suggests that a fourth entity should be recognized. Several forms of the complex are in commercial trade as ornamentals. As very limited molecular information on Chrysogonum is available, we developed a set of genic simple sequence repeat markers (eSSRs) from de novo transcriptome sequencing. We tested a set of 17 eSSRs on a collection of C. virginianum genomic DNA samples from the three botanical varieties, and a new putative type observed in Tennessee, dubbed “Ocoee-type” for its geographic origin. The polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis analyses with downstream population genetics tools verified the usefulness of the eSSRs. By applying this approach, we showed recognizable variation within Chrysogonum, although it did not correspond exactly to previous infraspecific classifications. Finally, as demonstrated for the commercial cultivar Pierre included in the study, the eSSRs can be used for enhancing the future breeding or hybridization efforts of this ornamental plant.
This study was funded fully by an Agricultural Research Service–U.S. Department of Agriculture grant (58-6062-6) to the Trigiano laboratory for ornamental plants research. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Use of trade names is for identification purposes only and does not imply their endorsement by the authors or the study funding entities. The authors are grateful to the plant material collectors and herbaria for making them available to this study. The RNA sequencing raw read files are available as National Center for Biotechnology Information Sequence Read Archive accession SRR8181940.
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Arias,R.S.Techen,N.Rinehart,T.A.Olsen,R.T.Kirkbride,J.H.Scheffler,B.E.2011Development of simple sequence repeat markers for Chionanthus retusus (Oleaceae) and effective discrimination of closely related taxa462329)| false
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Chen,X.Sun,M.Liang,J.Xue,H.Zhang,Q.2013Genetic diversity of species of Chrysanthemum and related genera and groundcover cultivars assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphic markers48539546)| false