Lactic Acid Bacteria Incorporated into Edible Coatings to Control Fungal Growth and Maintain Postharvest Quality of Grapes

in HortScience

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to prevent the growth and activity of several postharvest pathogen fungi in fruit and vegetables because of their ability to produce antimicrobial metabolites. Edible coatings (ECs) can be used as carriers of LAB and could provide an alternative natural preservation method. The effectiveness of Lactobacillus plantarum against fungal decay on grapes applied together with EC was studied. Different formulations with or without L. plantarum were considered, using pregelatinized potato starch (PS) or sodium caseinate (NaC) as main components of the coating matrices. In some of the formulations, oleic acid (OA) was added as a surfactant. The population dynamics of the bacterium and its ability to control fungal decay were studied together with the assessment of fruit quality. NaC-based formulations improved survival of L. plantarum on fruit surface after 7 days of storage in comparison with a water control. On the other hand, L. plantarum in PS-based formulation without OA reduced Botrytis incidence more than when applied in NaC formulation or in water. Coatings had little effect on berry quality (weight, color, firmness, and soluble solids content) of grapes throughout storage, although some of the coated samples maintained acidity and maturity index during storage better than others. Therefore, LAB applied in ECs could provide a viable biocontrol method for postharvest disease in grapes.

Contributor Notes

We are grateful to the Spanish government for the financial support from the national project RTA2012-00067-C02 (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Spain and FEDER funds) and to the Conselleria d’Educació of the Generalitat Valenciana (Spain) for A. Marín’s PhD grant.

Mention of a trademark or proprietary product is for identification only and does not imply a guarantee or warranty of the product by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The U.S. Department of Agriculture prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status.

This manuscript was presented as an oral contribution (HP-12) to the 2018 Florida State Horticultural Society meeting in Fort Lauderdale, FL, June 10–12, 2018.

Corresponding author. E-mail: Anne.Plotto@ars.usda.gov

Article Sections

Article Figures

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    Population counts of Lactobacillus plantarum on grape surface applied with different coating-forming dispersions at 1 and 7 d after application. Values are means (with standard deviations) of three replicates per treatment and storage time. Different superscripts (a, b, c) and (1, 2) indicate significant differences determined using least significant difference test (P < 0.05) between formulations and storage time, respectively. C = control (water dispersion); CFU = colony-forming unit; LAB = L. plantarum; NaC = sodium caseinate, OA = oleic acid; PS = pregelatinized potato starch.

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    Percentage of reduction of Botrytis cinerea infection in reference to water control after 7 d of storage, by application of Lactobacillus plantarum on grapes using different coating-forming dispersions: incidence (bars) and severity (points). Values are means of three replicates. Different superscripts (a, b, c) and (1, 2, 3) indicate significant differences determined using least significant difference test (P < 0.05) between formulations for reduction of incidence and severity, respectively. C = control (water dispersion); LAB = L. plantarum; NaC = sodium caseinate, OA = oleic acid; PS = pregelatinized potato starch.

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    Berry weight loss after 9 d of storage of uncoated grapes or coated with the different dispersions containing or not Lactobacillus plantarum (LAB). Values are means of three replicates (with standard deviations). Different superscripts (a, b, c, d) and (1, 2) indicate significant differences determined using least significant difference test (P < 0.05) between formulations (letters), and for the same formulation, with and without LAB (numbers). C = control (water dispersion); LAB = L. plantarum; NaC = sodium caseinate, OA = oleic acid; PS = pregelatinized potato starch.

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    Luminosity (L*) (A), chroma (Cab*) (B), and hue (hab*) (C) of grapes at initial time and after 9 storage days for uncoated and coated grapes with the different formulations containing or not Lactobacillus plantarum. Values are means of three replications (with standard deviations). Different superscripts (a, b) indicate significant differences determined using least significant difference test (P < 0.05) for L*, Cab*, and hab* between day 0 and day 9 for each formulation. C = control (water dispersion); LAB = L. plantarum; NaC = sodium caseinate, OA = oleic acid; PS = pregelatinized potato starch.

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