Effects of Vacuum Packaging on Enzymatic Browning and Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) Gene Expression of Fresh-cut Lotus Root

in HortScience

Ethylene response factor (ERF) genes have been involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stress, including hypoxia and anaerobic stress. Vacuum packaging (a typical anaerobic stress) is an effective storage method used to delay browning of fresh-cut lotus root (Nelumbo nucifera). In model plants, ERF genes have been identified as responsive to hypoxia. Whether ERF is associated with browning of vacuum-packaged lotus root has not been studied. The effects of vacuum packaging on browning, phenolic content, the enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD), and PPO, PAL, POD, and ERF genes expression in fresh-cut lotus root were studied. Downregulation of NnPAL1, NnPPOA, and NnPOD2/3 attributable to vacuum packaging coincided with increased related enzyme activities and the degree of browning of fresh-cut lotus root. The expression patterns of NnERF4/5 were consistent with the changes in NnPAL1, NnPPOA, and NnPOD2/3 gene expression. It has been proposed that NnERF4/5 could have be important regulators of fresh-cut lotus root browning, and that the relationships of NnERF4/5 and NnPAL1, NnPPOA, and NnPOD2/3 should to be studied further.

Contributor Notes

This research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (no. 2016YFD0400103) and Research Institute of Wuhan Polytechnic University (2018J02).

Corresponding author. E-mail: 1471885254@qq.com.

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    Effects of two different types of packaging on the degree of browning of fresh-cut lotus root (‘E Lian 5’). Fresh-cut lotus root was separately stored in vacuum packaging (VP) (circles) and atmospheric packaging (AP) (squares) at 4 °C. Error bars represent ses from three biological replicates.

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    Effects of two different types of packaging on the total phenol content of fresh-cut lotus root (‘E Lian 5’). Fresh-cut lotus root was separately stored in vacuum packaging (VP) (circles) and atmospheric packaging (AP) (squares) at 4 °C. Error bars represent ses from three biological replicates.

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    Effects of two different types of packaging on phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) (A), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) (B), and peroxidase (POD) activity (C) (‘E Lian 5’). Fresh-cut lotus root was separately stored in vacuum packaging (VP) (circles) and atmospheric packaging (AP) (squares) at 4 °C. Error bars represent ses from three biological replicates.

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    Messenger RNA (mRNA) from phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) genes in response to different temperature treatments. Fresh-cut lotus root was separately stored in vacuum packaging (VP) (black) and atmospheric packing (AP) (red) at 4 °C. The day 0 sample values were set at 1. Error bars represent ses from three biological replicates.

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    Messenger RNA (mRNA) from polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes in response to different temperature treatments. Fresh-cut lotus root was separately stored in vacuum packaging (VP) (black) and atmospheric packing (AP) (red) at 4 °C. Error bars represent SEs from three biological replicates.

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    Messenger RNA (mRNA) from peroxidase (POD) genes in response to different temperature treatments. Fresh-cut lotus root was separately stored in vacuum packaging (VP) (black) and atmospheric packing (AP) (red) at 4 °C. Error bars represent ses from three biological replicates.

  • View in gallery

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) from ethylene response factor (ERF) genes in response to different temperature treatments. Fresh-cut lotus root was separately stored in vacuum packaging (VP) (black) and atmospheric packing (AP) (red) at 4 °C. Error bars represent ses from three biological replicates.

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