The Physiological and Biochemical Effects of Phthalic Acids and the Changes of Rhizosphere Fungi Diversity under Continuous Cropping of Lanzhou Lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor)

in HortScience

The autotoxicity of root exudates and the change of rhizosphere soil microbes are two important factors that affect the quality and yield of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor). Phthalic acid (PA) is a major autotoxin of the root exudates in Lanzhou lily. In this study, we treated plants with different concentrations of PA from the Lanzhou lily root exudates and then analyzed the effects of autotoxins on fresh weight, shoot height, root length, and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity in root. The diversity of soil fungi in Lanzhou lily soil was analyzed using MiSeq. The results showed that PA induced oxidative stress and oxidative damage of Lanzhou lily roots, improved the level of the membrane lipid peroxidation, reduced the content of antioxidant defense enzyme activity and the nonenzymatic antioxidant, and eventually inhibited the growth of the Lanzhou lily. We found that continuous cropping of Lanzhou lily resulted in an increase in fungal pathogens, such as Fusarium oxysporum in the soil, and reduced the size of plant-beneficial bacteria populations. The results in this study indicate that continuous cropping would damage the regular growth of Lanzhou lily.

Contributor Notes

This study was funded by Ningxia Agricultural Comprehensive Development Office (NTKJ2016-02-02), Major science and technology project of Gansu province (18ZD2NA010), Lanzhou Branch of Chinese Academy of Sciences institutional cooperation program (2BY52BI61), the Key program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (22Y622AM1), and Science and Technology Service Network Initiative of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KFJ-STS-QYZD-120). We thank Technician Qiuming He for helping us collect samples and we express our sincere gratitude to Richard T. Conant for his help in the manuscript draft.

These authors contributed equally to this study.

Corresponding author. E-mail: wangyajun@lzb.ac.cn.

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    Effect of phthalic acid (PA) on root length (A), fresh weight (B), shoot height (C), and bulb fresh weight (D) of Lanzhou lily plant. Data are the means of three replicates. Different letters above error bars indicate significant differences at the 5% level by the Duncan test.

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    Effects of phthalic acid (PA) on enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (A), peroxidase (POD) (B), and catalase (CAT) (C) of Lanzhou lily roots. Data are the means of three replicates. Different letters above error bars indicate significant differences at the 5% level by the Duncan test. FW = fresh weight.

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    Effects of different concentration of phthalic acid (PA) on H2O2 (A), Malondialdehyde (MDA) (B), total phenolics (C), and scavenging rate of hydroxyl radical (D) of Lanzhou lily roots. Data are the means of three replicates. Different letters above error bars indicate significant differences at the 5% level by the Duncan test. FW = fresh weight.

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    Effects of phthalic acid (PA) on root vigor of Lanzhou lily. Data are the means of three replicates. Different letters above error bars indicate significant differences at the 5% level by the Duncan test.

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    Effects of phthalic acid (PA) on the content of chlorophyll A (A), chlorophyll B (B), and carotenoid (C) of Lanzhou lily leaves. Data are the means of three replicates. Different letters above error bars indicate significant differences at the 5% level by the Duncan test. FW = fresh weight.

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    Number of Tags and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered from various soil samples. RS0.1, RS0.2, and RS0.3 indicate three replicates in RS0; other treatments include the similar replicates. RS0 = control field of no lily cropping; RS1 = field of 1-year, RS2 = field of 2-year, RS3 = field of 3-year consecutive lily cropping.

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    Rarefaction curves show the relationship between sampling intensity and the number of recovered operational taxonomic units from soil of lily fields. RS0.1, RS0.2, and RS0.3 indicate three replicates in RS0; other treatments include the similar replicates. RS0 = control field of no lily cropping; RS1 = field of 1-year, RS2 = field of 2-year, RS3 = field of 3-year consecutive lily cropping.

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    Relative abundances of the main fungal phylum in various soil sample. RS0.1, RS0.2, and RS0.3 indicate three replicates in RS0; other treatments include the similar replicates. RS0 = control field of no lily cropping; RS1 = field of 1-year, RS2 = field of 2-year, RS3 = field of 3-year consecutive lily cropping.

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    Relative abundances of eight groups of fungi: Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti, Alternaria longissima, Ilyonectria macrodidyma, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum circinans, and Penicillium sp. in all of the soil samples. Data are means of three replicates. Letters above error bars indicate significant differences at the 5% level by the Duncan multiple range test. RS0 = control field of no lily cropping; RS1 = field of 1-year, RS2 = field of 2-year, RS3 = field of 3-year consecutive lily cropping.

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    Relative abundances of eight groups of fungi, Mortierella alpina, uncultured Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota, and Trichoderma sp. in all of the soil samples. Data are means of three replicates. Letters above error bars indicate significant differences at the 5% level by the Duncan multiple range test. RS0 = control field of no lily cropping; RS1 = field of 1-year, RS2 = field of 2-year, RS3 = field of 3-year consecutive lily cropping.

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