Interaction of Supplementary Light and CO2 Enrichment Improves Growth, Photosynthesis, Yield, and Quality of Tomato in Autumn through Spring Greenhouse Production

in HortScience

During the autumn/spring “off” season, yield and quality of tomatoes are often affected by insufficient CO2 and low light in greenhouse production. Although tomato is one of the most widely cultivated vegetables, few studies have investigated the interactive effects of supplementary light and CO2 enrichment on its growth, photosynthesis, yield, and fruit quality in greenhouse production. This study investigates the effects of supplementary light (200 ± 20 μmol·m–2·s–1) and CO2 enrichment (increases to about 800 μmol·mol–1), independently and in combination, on these parameters in autumn through spring tomato production. Compared with tomatoes grown under ambient CO2 concentrations and no supplementary light (CaLn), supplementary light (CaLs) and supplementary light and CO2 enrichment (CeLs) significantly promoted growth and dry weight accumulation. Meanwhile, CO2 enrichment (CeLn) and CaLs significantly improved photosynthetic pigment contents and net photosynthetic (Pn) rates, whereas CeLs further improved these and also increased water use efficiency (WUE). CeLn, CaLs, and CeLs significantly increased single fruit weight by 16.2%, 28.9%, and 36.6%, and yield per plant by 19.0%, 35.6%, and 60.8%, respectively. The effect of supplementary light on these parameters was superior to that of CO2 enrichment. In addition, CaLs and CeLs improved nutritional quality significantly. Taken together, CeLs promoted the greatest yield, WUE, and fruit quality, suggesting it may be a worthwhile practice for off-season tomato cultivation.

Contributor Notes

This work was funded by Structure Optimization and Supporting Technology Development Study for Energy-saving Solar Greenhouse (2017ZDXM-NY-057) and also by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Z109021609).

We thank the editors and anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions and comments. We also thank the undergraduates who helped to complete the experiment.

These authors contributed equally to this work and are first coauthors.

Corresponding authors. E-mail: yyzhj@nwsuaf.edu.cn or zouzhirong2005@hotmail.com.

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Article Figures

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    Values of CO2 concentration, light intensity, temperature, and air relative humidity in the greenhouse during the experimental period. (A) Daytime course of CO2 concentration from 0800 to 1800 hr. The solid line, dotted solid line, dotted line, and circle dotted line represent the four treatments of ambient CO2 and no supplementary light (CaLn), CO2 enrichment and no supplementary light (CeLn), ambient CO2 and supplementary light (CaLs), and CO2 enrichment and supplementary light (CeLs), respectively. (B) Daytime course of light intensity during a typical sunny day (dotted line) and cloudy day (solid line). (C) Temporal changes in average daytime (solid line) and nighttime (dotted line) temperatures. (D) Temporal changes in air relative humidity (solid line) and average daily light intensity (dotted line). PAR = photosynthetically active radiation; DAT = days after transplanting.

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    Effects of CO2 enrichment and supplementary lighting on (A) plant height, (B) stem diameter, (C) leaf area, and (D) leaf number of tomato plants grown in a greenhouse. Values represent the means ± se (n = 4). Different letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 according to Duncan’s multiple range test. CaLn = ambient CO2 and no supplementary light; CeLn = CO2 enrichment and no supplementary light; CaLs = ambient CO2 and supplementary light; CeLs = CO2 enrichment and supplementary light.

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    Effects of CO2 enrichment and supplementary light on (A) net photosynthetic rate (Pn), (B) stomatal conductance (gS), (C) transpiration rate (Tr), and (D) water use efficiency (WUE; calculated as Pn/Tr) of tomato plants grown in a greenhouse, with values shown representing means ± se (n = 6). DAT = days after transplanting; CaLn = ambient CO2 and no supplementary light; CeLn = CO2 enrichment and no supplementary light; CaLs = ambient CO2 and supplementary light; CeLs = both CO2 enrichment and supplementary light.

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    The spectral distribution of high pressure sodium lamps.

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