Postharvest Dry Matter and Soluble Solids Content Prediction in d’Anjou and Bartlett Pear Using Near-infrared Spectroscopy

in HortScience

Dry matter (DM) has recently been proposed as a new quality index for apple, inspiring similar investigations in other tree fruit crops. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) enables the nondestructive estimation of DM and other quality attributes, although the accuracy and reliability of this technology on North American pear varieties remain untested. In this study, predictive NIR regression models were developed for nondestructive determination of postharvest DM and soluble solids content (SSC) in d’Anjou and Bartlett pears (Pyrus communis L.) using a commercially available NIR spectrometer. At calibration, models performed reliably with coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.940 (DM) and 0.908 (SSC) for model trained on d’Anjou pears and 0.860 (DM) and 0.839 (SSC) for model trained on Bartlett pears. Application of the models to independent validation datasets demonstrated acceptable performance with R2 values ranging from 0.722–0.901 and 0.651–0.844 between measured and predicted DM and SSC values, respectively. Differences in performance can be attributed to the different DM and SSC values and maturity levels between the fruit used for model calibration and those in the validation datasets. Although not all models developed in this study were accurate enough for quantitative determinations, NIR devices may be useful for orchard management decisions and fruit sorting purposes.

Contributor Notes

This research was supported by the Northwest Pear Bureau (NWPB) funds, award #PR16-105.

We would like to thank Bob Gix and Blue Star Growers (Cashmere, WA) for orchard access, and Felix Instruments (Camas, WA) for user support and assistance. We also thank Angela Knerl, Ryan Sheick, Stefan Roeder, and Rachel Leisso for their technical contributions.

Authors’ contributions: A.G., S.S., and S.M. substantially contributed to the conception, design of the work, to the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; to drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; to final approval of the version to be published. All authors are in agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Corresponding author. E-mail: sara.serra@wsu.edu.

Article Sections

Article Figures

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    Generalized depiction of the location of destructive dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC) measurements taken on the pear fruit. (A) 25 mm diameter, 10 mm depth tissue plug from which near-infrared measurements were collected. Half of the plug assessed for DM after removing the peel, the other for SSC. (B) Equatorial blush or shade side from which the plug was removed. (C) Vertical slice used in the determination of “whole-fruit” SSC. (D) Vertical slice used in the determination of “whole-fruit” DM. (E) Fruit material on opposing face from which AC were sampled (not shown). Figure to be produced in color online only.

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    Distribution of dry matter (DM, %) values destructively measured from d’Anjou and Bartlett pears in the near-infrared model calibration (shaded areas) and external cross-validation datasets (solid and dashed lines; Orchards 1, 2, and 3 consisting of d’Anjou/OHF87, d’Anjou/Bartlett seedling, and Bartlett/OHF87, respectively).

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    Distribution of soluble solids content (SSC, %) values destructively measured from d’Anjou and Bartlett pears in the near-infrared model calibration (shaded areas) and external cross-validation datasets (solid and dashed lines; Orchards 1, 2, and 3 consisting of d’Anjou/OHF87, d’Anjou/Bartlett seedling, and Bartlett/OHF87, respectively).

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    Average second derivative absorbance spectra among three internal fruit temperatures (1 °C black, 20 °C gray, and 30 °C light gray) measured at d’Anjou cultivar model calibration. Dashed horizontal line shows absolute difference in second derivative absorbance between 30 and 1 °C; vertical lines depict spectral range used in model calibration (729–975 nm); solid horizontal line illustrates near-infrared regions where average second derivative absorbance bands are statistically unique from one another (Student–Newman–Keuls, P < 0.05).

  • View in gallery

    Average second derivative absorbance spectra among three internal fruit temperatures (1 °C black, 20 °C gray, and 30 °C light gray) measured at Bartlett cultivar model calibration. Dashed horizontal line shows absolute difference in second derivative absorbance between 30 and 1 °C; vertical lines depict spectral range used in model calibration (729–975 nm); solid horizontal line illustrates near-infrared regions where average second derivative absorbance bands are statistically unique from one another (Student–Newman–Keuls, P < 0.05).

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    Average second derivative absorbance spectra between d’Anjou (black) and Bartlett (gray) pears measured at model calibration. Dashed horizontal line shows absolute difference in second derivative absorbance between the varieties; vertical lines depict spectral range used in model calibration (729–975 nm); solid horizontal line illustrates near-infrared regions where average second derivative absorbance bands are statistically unique from one another (Student–Newman–Keuls, P < 0.05).

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    Destructive vs. predicted values of (A) dry matter (DM) at d’Anjou model calibration, (B) soluble solids content (SSC) at d’Anjou model calibration, (C) DM at Bartlett model calibration, and (D) SSC at Bartlett model calibration. Reference line illustrates a 1:1 prediction of the destructive value.

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    Destructive vs. predicted dry matter (DM, %) values among external validation sets as estimated by d’Anjou or Bartlett model at harvest (solid black points) or after 6 months of regular atmosphere cold storage (hollow white points). (A) Orchard 1 (d’Anjou/OHF87) DM as predicted by d’Anjou model, (B) Orchard 1 (d’Anjou/OHF87) DM as predicted by Bartlett model, (C) Orchard 2 (d’Anjou/Bartlett seedling) DM as predicted by d’Anjou model, (D) Orchard 2 (d’Anjou/Bartlett seedling) DM as predicted by Bartlett model, (E) Orchard 3 (Bartlett) DM as predicted by d’Anjou model, (F) Orchard 3 (Bartlett/OHF87) DM as predicted by Bartlett model, (G) Pooled external validation DM as predicted by d’Anjou model, and (H) Pooled external validation DM as predicted by Bartlett model. Reference lines illustrate a 1:1 prediction of the destructive value.

  • View in gallery

    Destructive vs. predicted soluble solids content (SSC, %) values among external validation sets as estimated by d’Anjou or Bartlett model at harvest (solid black points) or after 6 months of regular atmosphere cold storage (hollow white points). (A) Orchard 1 (d’Anjou/OHF87) SSC as predicted by d’Anjou model, (B) Orchard 1 (d’Anjou/OHF87) SSC as predicted by Bartlett model, (C) Orchard 2 (d’Anjou/Bartlett seedling) SSC as predicted by d’Anjou model, (D) Orchard 2 (d’Anjou/Bartlett seedling) SSC as predicted by Bartlett model, (E) Orchard 3 (Bartlett) SSC as predicted by d’Anjou model, (F) Orchard 3 (Bartlett/OHF87) SSC as predicted by Bartlett model, (G) Pooled external validation SSC as predicted by d’Anjou model, and (H) Pooled external validation SSC as predicted by Bartlett model. Reference lines illustrate a 1:1 prediction of the destructive value.

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