No Effect of Seed Presence or Absence on Sugar Content and Water Status of Seeded and Seedless Watermelon Fruits

in HortScience

We investigated physiological differences in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai] fruits among seeded diploid and seedless triploid fruits, N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N′-phenylurea (CPPU)–treated seedless fruits, and soft-X–irradiated pollen-pollinated seedless fruits to investigate the effect of the presence or absence of seeds on water relations and sugar content. We picked fruits at 20 and 40 days after anthesis and sampled flesh at the center, around the seeds, and near the pericarp to measure water status and sugar content. There were no significant differences between seeded and seedless cultivars in sugar contents or in water and osmotic potentials of the flesh, although the latter two were decreased at 40 days. CPPU and soft-X–irradiated pollen eliminated mature seeds, but there were again no significant differences in sugar contents or water status between seeded and seedless fruits. Thus, the presence or absence of seeds did not influence the sugar content or osmotic pressure in watermelon fruit, so sugar accumulation was not related to seeds.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author. E-mail: agrisys@meiji.ac.jp.

Article Sections

Article Figures

  • View in gallery

    Fruit circumferences of (A) diploid ‘Hitorijime-BonBon’ and triploid ‘Sandia’ (Expt. 1), (B) conventionally pollinated and CPPU-treated ‘Hitorijime-BonBon’ (Expt. 2), and (C) conventionally pollinated and soft-X–irradiated pollen-pollinated ‘Hitorijime-BonBon’ (Expt. 3) during growth. Error bars represent se (n = 4–10). CPPU = N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N′-phenylurea.

  • View in gallery

    Contents of (A and E) glucose, (B and F) fructose, (C and G) sucrose, and (D and H) total sugars in ▪ ‘Hitorijime-BonBon’ and □ ‘Sandia’ fruits at (AD) 20 and (EH) 40 d after anthesis. Error bars represent se. n.s.Not significantly different between cultivars (n = 3–5) at P > 0.05 by Student’s t test.

  • View in gallery

    (A and D) Water potential, (B and E) osmotic potential, and (C and F) turgor pressure of ▪ ‘Hitorijime-BonBon’ and □ ‘Sandia’ fruits at (AC) 20 and (DF) 40 d after anthesis. Error bars represent se. *Significantly different between cultivars (n = 3–5) at P < 0.05 by Student’s t test.

  • View in gallery

    Contents of (A and E) glucose, (B and F) fructose, (C and G) sucrose, and (D and H) total sugars in ▪ conventionally pollinated and □ CPPU-treated ‘Hitorijime-BonBon’ fruits at (AC) 20 and (GI) 40 d after anthesis. Error bars represent se. *Significantly different between treatments (n = 4–6) at P < 0.05 by Student’s t test. CPPU = N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N′-phenylurea.

  • View in gallery

    (A and D) Water potential, (B and E) osmotic potential, and (C and F) turgor pressure of ▪ conventionally pollinated and □ CPPU-treated ‘Hitorijime-BonBon’ fruits at (AC) 20 and (DF) 40 d after anthesis. Error bars represent se. n.s.Not significantly different between treatments (n = 4–6) at P > 0.05 by Student’s t test. CPPU = N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N′-phenylurea.

  • View in gallery

    Contents of (A and E) glucose, (B and F) fructose, (C and G) sucrose, and (D and H) total sugars in ▪ conventionally pollinated and □ soft-X–irradiated pollen-pollinated ‘Hitorijime-BonBon’ fruits at (AC) 20 and (GI) 40 d after anthesis. Error bars represent se. *Significantly different between treatments (n = 5 or 6) at P < 0.05 by Student’s t test.

  • View in gallery

    (A and D) Water potential, (B and E) osmotic potential, and (C and F) turgor pressure of ▪ conventionally pollinated and □ soft-X–irradiated pollen-pollinated ‘Hitorijime-BonBon’ fruits at (AC) 20 and (DF) 40 d after anthesis. Error bars represent se. n.s.Not significantly different between treatments (n = 5 or 6) at P > 0.05 by Student’s t test.

Article References

  • BangerthF.SchroderM.1994Strong synergistic effects of gibberellins with the synthetic cytokinin N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea on parthenocarpic fruit set and some other fruit characteristics of applePlant Growth Regulat.15293302

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BoyerJ.S.1995aMeasuring the water status of plants and soils. Academic Press San Diego CA

  • BoyerJ.S.1995bWater relations of plants and soils. Academic Press San Diego CA

  • FisherD.B.OparkaK.J.1996Post-phloem transport: Principles and problemsJ. Expt. Bot.4711411154

  • FujishimaH.MatsudaK.UshijimaK.YahataD.ShiraishiM.ChijiwaH.2012Differences in fruit quality between gibberellin-treated and untreated berries of ‘Kyoho’ grapesEngeigaku Kenkyuu.11405410

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HayataY.NiimiY.IwasakiN.1995Synthetic cytokinin-1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU)-promotes fruit set and induces parthenocarpy in watermelonJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.1209971000

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IkedaT.FukazawaT.MitsuieS.YoshiiK.2011Osmotic contribution of sugar contents in watermelon fleshEnvrion. Control Biol.498390

  • KanoY.2000Effects of CPPU treatment on fruit and rind development of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus Matsum. et Nakai)J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol.75651654

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KawamuraS.IdaK.OsawaM.IkedaT.2016The relationship among fruit growth sugar accumulation and water status of seeded watermelon and seedless watermelon fruits. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Annu. Mtg. 2016 Atlanta. Poster 23054 (Abstr.). 13 Oct. 2017. <https://ashs.confex.com/ashs/2016/webprogram/Paper23054.html>.

  • KwonS.W.JaskaniM.J.KoB.R.2006Evaluation of soft X-ray irradiated pollen and CPPU for diploid seedless watermelon productionActa Hort.710289294

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LangA.DuringH.1991Partitioning control by water potential gradient: Evidence for compartmentation breakdown in grape berriesJ. Expt. Bot.4211171122

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeskovarD.BangH.CrosbyK.ManessN.FrancoA.Perkins-VeazieP.2004Lycopene, carbohydrates, ascorbic acid and yield components of diploid and triploid watermelon cultivars are affected by deficit irrigationJ. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol.797581

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MarrC.W.GastK.L.B.1991Reactions by consumers in a farmers’ market to prices for seedless watermelon and ratings of eating qualityHortTechnology.1105106

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MaynardD.N.DunlapA.M.SidotiB.J.2002Sweetness in diploid and triploid watermelon fruitCucurbit Genet. Coop. Rpt.253235

  • MoussaH.R.SalemA.A.K.2010Parthenocarpy of watermelon cultivars induced by γ-irradiationRuss. J. Plant Physiol.57574581

  • OkamotoT.ShudoK.TakahashiS.KawachiE.SogaiY.19814-Pyridylureas are surprisingly potent cytokinins. The structure-activity relationshipChem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo).2937483750

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PandolfiniT.2009Seedless fruit production by hormonal regulation of fruit setNutrients.1168177

  • PardoJ.E.GomezR.TardaguilaJ.AmoM.VaronR.1997Quality evaluation of watermelon varieties (Citrullus vulgaris S.)J. Food Qual.20547557

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PatrickJ.W.ZhangW.TyermanS.D.OfflerC.E.WalkerN.A.2001Role of membrane transport in phloem translocation of assimilates and waterAustral. J. Plant Physiol.28695707

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PomperK.W.BreenP.J.1995Levels of apoplastic solutes in developing strawberry fruitJ. Expt. Bot.46743752

  • RoitschT.EhneßR.2000Regulation of source/sink relations by cytokininsPlant Growth Regulat.32359367

  • SugiyamaK.MorishitaM.2000Fruit and seed characteristics of diploid seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cultivars produced by soft-X-irradiated pollenJ. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci.69684689

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SugiyamaK.MorishitaM.2002Seedless watermelons produced via soft-X-irradiated pollenHortScience.37292295

  • WatanabeS.NakanoY.OkanoK.2001Relationships between total leaf area and fruit weight in vertically and horizontally trained watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai) plantsJ. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci.70725732

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WeinbaumS.A.DeJongT.M.MakiJ.2001Reassessment of seed influence on return bloom and fruit growth in Bartlett’ pearHortScience.36295297

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZhangC.LeeU.TanabeK.2008Hormonal regulation of fruit set, parthenogenesis induction and fruit expansion in Japanese pearPlant Growth Regulat.55231240

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Article Information

Google Scholar

Related Content

Article Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 153 153 11
Full Text Views 40 40 1
PDF Downloads 6 6 1