PA-593: A Root-knot Nematode-resistant Sweet Cherry-type Pepper

in HortScience

PA-593 is a new sweet cherry-type pepper line containing the N gene, providing resistance to the most prevalent root-knot nematodes (RKN) in the southern United States. PA-593 has shown comparable growth, fruit, and yield characteristics to commercially available cultivars of sweet cherry-type peppers. PA-593 will provide breeders with a useful resource for incorporating RKN resistance into their breeding programs to produce commercial sweet cherry-type pepper varieties. This RKN-resistant pepper line was developed by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Origin

PA-593 was developed using a recurrent backcross breeding procedure. The resistant N gene donor parent was ‘Charleston Belle’; the recurrent parent was ‘Sweet Cherry’. ‘Charleston Belle’ is an RKN-resistant bell-type pepper released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Fery et al., 1998). The RKN-susceptible ‘Sweet Cherry’ accession used as the recurrent parent was obtained from D.V. Burrell Seed Growers Company (Rocky Ford, CO) (Fig. 1). PA-593 was derived from a single BC3F4 plant grown in 2014, and is homozygous for the dominant N nematode resistance gene. The N gene conditions a high level of resistance against several RKNs, including the most predominant and damaging species on pepper in the southern United States: Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria (Thies and Fery, 2000).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Pedigree of the cherry-type pepper line PA-593 with the N gene for resistance to root knot.

Citation: HortScience horts 53, 12; 10.21273/HORTSCI13544-18

Description

In both greenhouse and field trials, PA-593 displayed a high level of resistance to the southern RKN M. incognita, with less than 1% of its root system exhibiting galling compared with 30% to 45% root system galling observed on roots of the commercial parent ‘Sweet Cherry’ (Table 1). The resistance exhibited by PA-593 is equal to that exhibited by the donor parent, the RKN-resistant bell-type cultivar Charleston Belle.

Table 1.

Mean root-galling and egg counts for M. incognita infecting PA-593 compared with its parental cultivars Sweet Cherry (susceptible) and Charleston Belle (resistant) in both a greenhouse and a field trial (Charleston, SC; Spring 2016).

Table 1.

PA-593 is similar in appearance and maturity to ‘Sweet Cherry’. It has a compact growth habit. Stems and leaves are glabrous, and anthocyanin production is visible around the nodes. Leaves display a 3:1 length-to-width ratio, with an intermediate to dark-green color. Pedicel position is pendant at anthesis, with one pedicel per axil. The flowers have solid white corollas with blue anthers and white filaments. Stigmas protrude past anthers at full anthesis. There is an annular constriction at the junction of the calyx and peduncle. The fruits are persistent, with both pedicel and calyx usually remaining with the fruit at harvest, and the fruit is positioned in a declining to intermediate angle at harvest. The mean peduncle length for PA-593 was 25.6 ± 2.7 mm (sd), which was comparable to the recurrent parent. The period from transplant to first harvest of mature fruit is about 65 d in Charleston, SC.

The fruit characteristics and yields of PA-593 are similar to those exhibited by the commercial cultivar Sweet Cherry. Immature fruits are green, progressing to a deep red at maturity (mean CIELAB color coordinate readings, L* = 36.92, a* = 37.21, b* = 18.18), which is consistent with the commercial ‘Sweet Cherry’. The fruit is round, with a truncated shape where the peduncle attaches, and a blunt shape at the blossom end. Cross-sections of fruit are smooth and without corrugation (Fig. 2). In three replicated field trials conducted in Charleston, SC, in 2015 and 2016, mean fruit length was 26.1 ± 3.2 mm (sd), mean fruit width was 31.5 ± 2.3 mm (sd), and mean wall thickness was 3.6 ± 0.5 mm (sd) (Table 2). PA-593 produced an average fruit yield ranging from 197.7 to 225.5 g/plant, which is comparable to the recurrent parent ‘Sweet Cherry’ (200.0–267.1 g/plant) in the same trials (Table 3).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Freshly harvested fruit from the root-knot nematode-resistant sweet cherry-type pepper PA-593.

Citation: HortScience horts 53, 12; 10.21273/HORTSCI13544-18

Table 2.

Fruit morphology measurements obtained from the root-knot nematode-resistant sweet cherry-type pepper PA-593 compared with its susceptible parental cultivar Sweet Cherry. Data were collected from three independent field trials.z

Table 2.
Table 3.

Mean fruit yield measurements from the M. incognita-resistant sweet cherry-type pepper PA-593 compared with its susceptible parental cultivar Sweet Cherry. Data were collected from three independent field trials.z

Table 3.

The RKN-resistant PA-593 is recommended for use as a parental line by pepper breeders interested in developing RKN-resistant cultivars of cherry-type sweet peppers. The dominant nature of the gene conditioning the RKN resistance would make PA-593 useful as an inbred parent for development of RKN-resistant F1 hybrids.

Availability

Small amounts (about 25) of seed of PA-593 produced in a controlled greenhouse environment are available for distribution to interested research personnel and plant breeders. Address all requests to William Rutter, U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA-ARS, 2700 Savannah Highway, Charleston, SC 29414 (e-mail: william.rutter@ars.usda.gov). Seeds of PA-593 will also be submitted to the National Plant Germplasm System, where they will be available for research purposes, including the development and commercialization of new cultivars. It is requested that appropriate recognition of the source be given when this germplasm contributes to research or development of a new breeding line or cultivar.

Literature Cited

  • FeryR.L.DukesP.D.ThiesJ.A.1998‘Carolina Wonder’ and ‘Charleston Belle’: Southern root-knot nematode-resistant bell peppersHortScience33900902

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  • HusseyR.S.BarkerK.R.1973Comparison of methods of collecting inocula of Meloidogyne-spp., including a new techniquePlant Dis. Rpt.5710251028

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  • ThiesJ.A.FeryR.L.2000Characterization of resistance conferred by the N gene to Meloidogyne arenaria races 1 and 2, M-hapla, and M-javanica in two sets of isogenic lines of Capsicum annuum LJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.1257175

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Contributor Notes

The technical assistance of Floyd P. Maguire and Sharon Buckner, U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service, is gratefully acknowledged.

Corresponding author. E-mail: William.Rutter@ars.usda.gov.

  • View in gallery

    Pedigree of the cherry-type pepper line PA-593 with the N gene for resistance to root knot.

  • View in gallery

    Freshly harvested fruit from the root-knot nematode-resistant sweet cherry-type pepper PA-593.

  • FeryR.L.DukesP.D.ThiesJ.A.1998‘Carolina Wonder’ and ‘Charleston Belle’: Southern root-knot nematode-resistant bell peppersHortScience33900902

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HusseyR.S.BarkerK.R.1973Comparison of methods of collecting inocula of Meloidogyne-spp., including a new techniquePlant Dis. Rpt.5710251028

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ThiesJ.A.FeryR.L.2000Characterization of resistance conferred by the N gene to Meloidogyne arenaria races 1 and 2, M-hapla, and M-javanica in two sets of isogenic lines of Capsicum annuum LJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.1257175

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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