Evaluation of Three Commercial Biopesticides for the Reduction of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) Populations

in HortScience

Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the most serious threat to the global citrus industry, and its management has mainly depended on the application of chemical insecticides. The use of biopesticides can play an important role in regulating this pest. In a first test, two separate experiments were conducted in two different municipalities (Apulo and Jerusalen, Cundinamarca, Colombia) to evaluate the effect of foliar Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid sprays on ACP populations in 2015 and 2016, respectively. In a second test, two separate tests were carried out in commercial Tahiti lime orchards to evaluate the efficacy of three different commercial biopesticides (Beauveria bassiana and extracts of Sophora sp. and garlic-chili pepper). In test 1, imidacloprid-treated trees showed a reduction (60% and 80%) in cumulative ACP adults in 2016. ACP cumulative nymphs were also diminished by foliar imidacloprid and B. bassiana application, between 40% and 65% in 2015 and 2016, respectively. ACP cumulative eggs showed lower individuals in imidacloprid-treated flushes at 3 and 4 weeks after treatment 9 (WAT) in 2016. In test 2, the results obtained showed ACP adults and eggs unaffected by biopesticide treatments; nymphs were reduced 50% to 75% in trees treated with the three biopesticides in comparison with control trees. All three biopesticides tested can be considered useful tools in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for ACP, since these products reduced immature ACP individuals between 50% and 75% under field conditions.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author. E-mail: hrestrepod@unal.edu.co.

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    Rainfall records and average temperatures in the municipalities of Jerusalén (2015) (A and B) and Apulo (2016) (C and D), respectively.

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    Rainfall records (A) and average temperature (B) for the evaluation trials of the effects of three biopesticides on the control of ACP populations in the municipality of Jerusalén. Data were obtained from a nearby weather station [Jerusalén station (lat. 4°56′18.06″N, long. 74°70′23.99″W, altitude: elevation 297 m) of the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies (IDEAM)].

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    Average cumulative ACP individuals (adults, nymphs, and eggs) per flush shoot in Tahiti lime trees treated with imidacloprid and Beauveria bassiana in experiment 1 (Jerusalen, 2015) (A, C, and E) and experiment 2 (Apulo, 2016) (B, D, and F). Points represent the mean of four values ±se. NSNo significance; ***significant difference (P ≤ 0.001); **significant difference (P ≤ 0.01); *significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the control according to the Tukey test. Foliar treatment sprays were carried out at 0 weeks after treatments.

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    Summary of the efficiency percentage per flush shoot in Tahiti lime trees treated with imidacloprid and Beauveria bassiana in experiment 1 (Jerusalen, 2015) [adults (A), nymphs (C), and eggs (E)] and experiment 2 (Apulo, 2016) [adults (B), nymphs (D), and eggs (F)]. Bar charts represent the mean of four values ±se. NSNo significance; *significant difference (P ≤0.05) according to the Tukey test. Foliar treatment sprays were carried out at 0 weeks after treatments.

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    Mean of ACP adults (A), nymphs (B), and eggs (C) per flush shoot in Tahiti lime trees treated with three commercial biopesticides (Sophora spp., garlic-chili pepper concentrated emulsion, or B. bassiana). Points represent the mean of four values ±se. NSNo significance; ***significant difference (P ≤ 0.001); **significant difference (P ≤ 0.01); *significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the control according to the Tukey test. Arrows indicate foliar commercial biopesticide applications.

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    Cumulative average of ACP adults (A), nymphs (B), and eggs (C) per flush shoot in Tahiti lime trees treated with three commercial biopesticides (Sophora spp., garlic-chili pepper concentrated emulsion, or B. bassiana). Points represent the mean of four values ±se. NSNo significance; ***significant difference (P ≤ 0.001); **significant difference (P ≤ 0.01); *significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the control according to the Tukey test. Foliar treatment sprays were carried out at 0 weeks after treatments.

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    Summary of the efficiency percentage per flush shoot in Tahiti lime trees treated with three commercial biopesticides (Sophora spp., garlic-chili pepper concentrated emulsion, or B. bassiana) at 2 [adults (A), nymphs (C), and eggs (E)] and 4 [adults (B), nymphs (D), and eggs (F)] week after treatments (WAT). Bar charts represent the mean of four values ±se. NSNo significance at P ≤ 0.05. Foliar treatment sprays were carried out at 0 and 2 weeks after treatments.

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