Response of Hot Pepper Yield, Fruit Quality, and Fruit Ion Content to Irrigation Water Salinity and Leaching Fractions

in HortScience

It has been proved that irrigation with high saline water and leaching fraction (LF) affect crop yield, but the effects of irrigation water salinity (ECiw) and LF on fruit quality remain largely elusive. We therefore investigated the effects of ECiw and LF on the yield, fruit quality, and ion content of hot peppers. An experiment using irrigation water with five levels of salinity (ECiw of 0.9, 1.6, 2.7, 4.7, and 7.0 dS·m−1) and two LFs (0.17 and 0.29) was conducted in a rain shelter. The experiment took the form of a completely randomized block design, and each treatment was replicated four times. We increased the salinity of the irrigation water by adding 1:1 milliequivalent concentrations of NaCl and CaCl2 to a half-strength Hoagland solution. The plants were irrigated for 120% and 140% evapotranspiration, corresponding to an LF of 0.17 and 0.29. Results showed that the total fruit yield decreased significantly with an increase in the ECiw as a result of reduction both in the fresh weight of fruit and the number of fruit per plant. An increase in the ECiw also led to a decrease in the total dry biomass of fruit and plant, as well as decreasing water use efficiency (WUEF). Salinity reduced the appearance of the fruit by both decreasing the length (FL) and maximum width (FMW) of the fruit. However, increased ECiw also improved the taste of the hot peppers by increasing the total soluble solid (TSS) content, as well as adding to their nutritional quality with a higher content of Vitamin C (VC). Their storage quality was also improved because of an improvement in the firmness of the fruit (Fn) as well as a reduction in the fruit water content (FWC). An increase in the LF led to an increase in the total fruit yield, total dry biomass of fruit and plant, and WUEF; it also increased the FWC and VC content, and decreased the FMW and fruit shape index (FSI). The threshold-slope linear response and sigmoidal-sharp models were both a good fit for the measured total fruit yield, and the LF had no significant effect on the model parameters. The relative TSS and Fn increased linearly as the electrical conductivity (EC) of soil-saturated paste extract (ECe) increased, whereas they decreased linearly as the relative seasonal evapotranspiration (ETr) increased regardless of the LFs. The relative FW, FL, and FMW decreased linearly with the increased ECe, and increased linearly with the increased ETr regardless of the LFs. The relative fruit Na+ concentration increased linearly as the ECe increased. The regression correlations between the total fruit yield, fruit quality parameters, ion contents, and ECe or ETr could provide important information for salinity and irrigation water management with a compromise between the hot pepper yield and fruit quality.

Contributor Notes

We are grateful for the research grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51509130, 41575111, 41475107, 51309080), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20150908), the National Science and Technology Support Program during the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2014BAD10B07), the Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Agricultural Meteorology Foundation (JKLAM1601), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD). We also thank Jinqin Xu, Jun Chen, Shanshan Cheng, Xu Liu, and Hongzhou Chen for their assistance in this experiment.

Corresponding author. E-mail: qiurj@nuist.edu.cn or qiurangjian@tom.com.

  • AdamsP.HoL.C.2015Effects of constant and fluctuating salinity on the yield, quality and calcium status of tomatoesJ. Hort. Sci.64725732

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AOAC1984Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) in Vitamin preparations and Juices: 2 6-Dichloroindophenol titrimetric method. Assn. Offic. Anal. Chemists Washington DC

  • AzumaR.ItoN.NakayamaN.SuwaR.NguyenN.T.Larrinaga-MayoralJ.Á.EsakaM.FujiyamaH.SaneokaH.2010Fruits are more sensitive to salinity than leaves and stems in pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.)Sci. Hort.125171178

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BelakbirA.RuizJ.M.RomeroL.1998Yield and fruit quality of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in response to bioregulatorsHortScience338587

  • Ben-GalA.ItyelE.DudleyL.CohenS.YermiyahuU.PresnovE.ZigmondL.ShaniU.2008Effect of irrigation water salinity on transpiration and on leaching requirements: A case study for bell peppersAgr. Water Mgt.95587597

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChartzoulakisK.KlapakiG.2000Response of two greenhouse pepper hybrids to NaCl salinity during different growth stagesSci. Hort.86247260

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChenJ.L.KangS.Z.DuT.S.QiuR.J.GuoP.ChenR.Q.2013Quantitative response of greenhouse tomato yield and quality to water deficit at different growth stagesAgr. Water Mgt.129152162

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChenS.ZhangZ.Y.WangZ.C.GuoX.P.LiuM.H.HamoudY.A.ZhengJ.C.QiuR.J.2016Effects of uneven vertical distribution of soil salinity under a buried straw layer on the growth, fruit yield, and fruit quality of tomato plantsSci. Hort.203131142

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CollaG.RouphaelY.CardarelliM.MassaD.SalernoA.ReaE.2006Yield, fruit quality and mineral composition of grafted melon plants grown under saline conditionsJ. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol.81146152

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DoorenbosJ.KassamA.H.1979Yield response to water FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No 33. FAO Roma

  • DudleyL.M.Ben-GalA.ShaniU.2008Influence of plant, soil, and water on the leaching fractionVadose Zone J.7420425

  • FloresP.NavarroJ.M.CarvajalM.CerdaA.MartínezV.2003Tomato yield and quality as affected by nitrogen source and salinityAgronomie23249256

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garcia-LegazM.F.López GómezE.Mataix BeneytoJ.TorrecillasA.Sánchez-BlancoM.J.2005Effects of salinity and rootstock on growth, water relations, nutrition and gas exchange of loquatJ. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol.80199203

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GoughC.HobsonG.E.2015A comparison of the productivity, quality, shelf-life characteristics and consumer reaction to the crop from cherry tomato plants grown at different levels of salinityJ. Hort. Sci.65431439

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GrattanS.R.ShennanC.MayD.RobertsB.BorinM.SattinM.1994Utilizing saline drainage water to supplement irrigation water requirements of tomato in a rotation with cotton. Proc. III Congr. European Soc. Agron. Padova Univ. Abano-Padova Italy

  • HeegC.KruseC.JostR.GutensohnM.RuppertT.WirtzM.HellR.2008Analysis of the Arabidopsis O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase gene family demonstrates compartment-specific differences in the regulation of cysteine synthesisPlant Cell20168185

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HeidarpourM.Mostafazadeh FardB.ArzaniA.AghakhaniA.FeiziM.2009Effects of irrigation water salinity and leaching fraction on yield and evapotranspiration in spring wheatCommun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.4025212535

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JohnsonR.W.DixonM.A.LeeD.R.2006Water relations of the tomato during fruit growthPlant Cell Environ.15947953

  • KiremitM.S.ArslanH.2016Effects of irrigation water salinity on drainage water salinity, evapotranspiration and other leek (Allium porrum L.) plant parametersSci. Hort.201211217

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MaasE.V.HoffmanG.J.1977Crop salt tolerance-current assessmentJ. Irrig. Drain. Div.103115134

  • MalashN.M.FlowersT.J.RagabR.2008Effect of irrigation methods, management and salinity of irrigation water on tomato yield, soil moisture and salinity distributionIrrig. Sci.26313323

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MunnsR.2002Comparative physiology of salt and water stressPlant Cell Environ.25239250

  • NavarroJ.M.BotellaM.A.MartinezV.1999Yield and fruit quality of melon plants grown under saline conditions in relation to phosphate and calcium nutritionJ. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol.74573578

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NavarroJ.M.GarridoC.CarvajalM.MartinezV.2002Yield and fruit quality of pepper plants under sulphate and chloride salinityJ. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol.775257

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NavarroJ.M.GarridoC.FloresP.MartínezV.2010The effect of salinity on yield and fruit quality of pepper grown in perliteSpan. J. Agr. Res.8142150

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PatanèC.CosentinoS.L.2010Effects of soil water deficit on yield and quality of processing tomato under a Mediterranean climateAgr. Water Mgt.97131138

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PatanèC.TringaliS.SortinoO.2011Effects of deficit irrigation on biomass, yield, water productivity and fruit quality of processing tomato under semi-arid Mediterranean climate conditionsSci. Hort.129590596

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PatilV.C.Al-GaadiK.A.Wahb-AllahM.A.SalehA.M.MareyS.A.SamdaniM.S.AbbasM.E.2014Use of saline water for greenhouse bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) productionAmer. J. Agr. Biol. Sci.9208217

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PlautZ.YehezkelC.E.2004How do salinity and water stress affect transport of water, assimilates and ions to tomato fruits?Physiol. Plant.122429442

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RameshwaranP.TepeA.YazarA.RagabR.2016Effects of drip-irrigation regimes with saline water on pepper productivity and soil salinity under greenhouse conditionsSci. Hort.199114123

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RubioJ.S.García-SánchezF.RubioF.MartínezV.2009Yield, blossom-end rot incidence, and fruit quality in pepper plants under moderate salinity are affected by K+ and and Ca2+ fertilizationSci. Hort.1197987

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StewartJ.I.HaganR.M.1973Functions to predict effects of crop water deficitsJ. Irrig. Drain. Div.99421439

  • Van GenuchtenM.T.HoffmanG.J.1984Analysis of crop production. In: I. Shainberg and J. Shalhevet (eds.). Soil salinity under irrigation. Springer New York NY

  • VandersliceJ.T.HiggsD.J.HayesJ.M.BlockG.1990Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid content of foods-as-eatenJ. Food Compos. Anal.3105118

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WangF.KangS.Z.DuT.S.LiF.S.QiuR.J.2011Determination of comprehensive quality index for tomato and its response to different irrigation treatmentsAgr. Water Mgt.9812281238

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 179 179 15
Full Text Views 38 38 1
PDF Downloads 9 9 0