Flower-size Heritability and Floral Heat-shock Tolerance in Diploid Roses

in HortScience

The effect of heat on rose flowers was examined by measuring flower size in 10 diploid rose populations created by crossing the heat-tolerant Texas A&M University (TAMU) breeding lines (M4-4, J06-20-14-3) and sensitive (97/7-2, ‘Red Fairy’, ‘Sweet Chariot’, ‘Vineyard Song’, ‘Old Blush’, and ‘Little Chief’) diploid roses. As expected, the populations and individual seedlings differed in flower size. The heat-shock treatment (1 hour at 44 °C) decreased flower diameter (15.7%), petal number (23.3%), and flower dry weight (16.9%). Flower-size traits had moderately low narrow-sense (0.24, 0.12, and 0.34 for flower diameter, petal number, and flower dry weight, respectively) and moderately high broad-sense (0.62, 0.74, and 0.76 for flower diameter, petal number, and flower dry weight, respectively) heritability indicating important nonadditive genetic effects. If rose genotypes vary in floral heat tolerance, a differential response to heat among populations, seedlings, or both detected statistically by a significant interaction effect would be expected. Both the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the restricted estimated maximum likelihood (REML) analyses showed a positive population × heat stress interaction effect for flower diameter. Although our data indicate differences in floral heat tolerance among the populations and genotypes, the effect was small as compared with the other sources of variation. Thus, using this 1-hour heat-shock approach would not be an effective strategy to select for floral heat tolerance in rose.

Contributor Notes

This work was partially funded by the Robert E. Basye Endowment in Rose Genetics and the USDA’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Specialty Crop Research Initiative projects, “RosBREED: Combining Disease Resistance with Horticultural Quality in New Rosaceous Cultivars” and “Combating Rose Rosette Disease: Short Term and Long Term Approaches.”

Corresponding author. E-mail: dbyrne@tamu.edu.

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    Synchronized plants with visible flower bud ready for heat shock. (A) Visible flower bud labeled with white flagging (solid arrow) and colored flagging (dotted line arrow) indicate the control plant and the plant scheduled for heat-shock treatment, respectively. (B) Visible flower bud marked with solid arrow is ready for the heat-shock treatment.

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    Browning of rose peduncles caused by a 1-h heat shock at 44 °C with 50% relative humidity when evaluated 2 weeks after treatment was occasionally observed.

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