Expression Patterns of ACS and ACO Gene Families and Ethylene Production in Rachis and Berry of Grapes

in HortScience

Ethylene is important during the berry development and in the last stages of rachis development or rachis senescence. Since grapes develop in a cluster that comprises both the fruit berry and the nonfruit rachis, we measured the release of ethylene from both tissues. Detached berries from Vitis vinifera ‘Ruby Seedless’ and ‘Thompson Seedless’ showed that ethylene release peaks at the beginning of berry development and at veraison. Ethylene production in the rachis was higher than that in the berry and had an obvious peak before harvest in ‘Thompson Seedless’. In both cultivars, ethephon treatment induced ethylene production in the rachis but not in the berry. Expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) genes showed diverse temporal and spatial patterns in ‘Thompson Seedless’ and ‘Ruby Seedless’. For most gene family members, the low ACS expression levels were observed in berry and rachis. Expression levels of most of the ACS and ACO genes did not correlate with ethylene released in the same organ. The transcriptional level of VvACS1 did correlate with ethylene evolution in rachis of ‘Thompson Seedless’ during berry development and storage, which suggested that VvACS1 may have important roles in rachis senescence. In berries of ‘Thompson Seedless’ and ‘Ruby Seedless’, the transcriptional levels of VvACO1, VvACS2, and VvACS6 coincided with ethylene production, indicating possible roles in berry development. Expression of VvACS2VvACO9 and VvACO1VvACO3 was not consistent with ethylene production during storage or in response to ethephon treatment, which suggests that the expression of ACS and ACO was affected by other stress factors after harvest.

Contributor Notes

We thank Anita K. Snyder for critical reading of the manuscript. The work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31201605) and Major Science and Technology Project in Henan Province (151100110900).

These authors contributed equally to this work.

Corresponding author. E-mail: jcfeng@henau.edu.cn.

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    Ethylene production rate from berry and rachis during berry development and in storage. Ethylene production rates in (A) rachis of Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’ during berry development, (B) rachis of V. vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’ in storage, (C) rachis of V. vinifera ‘Ruby Seedless’ during berry development, (D) rachis of V. vinifera ‘Ruby Seedless’ in storage, (E) berry of ‘Thompson Seedless’ during berry development, (F) berry of ‘Thompson Seedless’ in storage, (G) berry of ‘Ruby Seedless’ during berry development, and (H) berry of ‘Ruby Seedless’ in storage. CK, untreated control; ETH, samples that were treated with ethephon at harvest; H, harvest date. The veraison stage of ‘Thompson Seedless’ was at 49 d after full bloom (DAFB), and ‘Ruby Seedless’ was at 81 DAFB. Different letters indicated significant differences between transgenic lines and the wild type at P < 0.05.

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    Expression patterns of ACS and ACO genes from different organs in Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’ and ‘Ruby Seedless’. Expressions of ACS genes in (A) V. vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’, (B) V. vinifera ‘Ruby Seedless’, (C) V. vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’, and (D) V. vinifera ‘Ruby Seedless’. The value of shoot tip was set as “1” for ACS and ACO relative gene expression analysis.

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    Expression patterns of ACS genes in berry and rachis of ‘Thompson Seedless’ and ‘Ruby Seedless’ during berry development. Expressions of ACS genes in (A, B) rachis of ‘Thompson Seedless’, (C, D) berry of ‘Thompson Seedless’, (E, F) rachis of ‘Ruby Seedless’, and (G, H) berry of ‘Ruby Seedless’. The value of sample at harvest was set as “1” for ACS relative gene expression analysis. H = harvest date.

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    Expression patterns of ACO genes in berry and rachis of ‘Thompson Seedless’ and ‘Ruby Seedless’ during berry development. Expression of ACO genes in (A) rachis of ‘Thompson Seedless’, (B) berry of ‘Thompson Seedless’, (C) rachis of ‘Ruby Seedless’, and (D) berry of ‘Ruby Seedless’. The value of sample at harvest was set as “1” for ACO relative gene expression analysis. H = harvest date.

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    Expression of VvACS genes in rachis of Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’ and ‘Ruby Seedless’ during storage and in response to ethephon treatment. Expression of ACS genes in rachis of (AC) ‘Thompson Seedless’ and (DF) ‘Ruby Seedless’. The value for each tissue type at harvest (Day 0) was set as “1” for ACS relative gene expression analysis. CK = untreated control; ETH = samples that were treated with ethephon at harvest.

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    Expression of VvACO genes in rachis of Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’ and ‘Ruby Seedless’ during storage and in response to ethephon treatment. Expression of ACO genes in rachis of (A) ‘Thompson Seedless’ and (B) ‘Ruby Seedless’. The value for each tissue type at harvest (Day 0) was set as “1” for ACO relative gene expression analysis. CK = untreated control; ETH = samples that were treated with ethephon at harvest.

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    Total soluble solid contents of grape during berry developing. DAFB = days after full bloom.

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