Ethylene is important during the berry development and in the last stages of rachis development or rachis senescence. Since grapes develop in a cluster that comprises both the fruit berry and the nonfruit rachis, we measured the release of ethylene from both tissues. Detached berries from Vitis vinifera ‘Ruby Seedless’ and ‘Thompson Seedless’ showed that ethylene release peaks at the beginning of berry development and at veraison. Ethylene production in the rachis was higher than that in the berry and had an obvious peak before harvest in ‘Thompson Seedless’. In both cultivars, ethephon treatment induced ethylene production in the rachis but not in the berry. Expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) genes showed diverse temporal and spatial patterns in ‘Thompson Seedless’ and ‘Ruby Seedless’. For most gene family members, the low ACS expression levels were observed in berry and rachis. Expression levels of most of the ACS and ACO genes did not correlate with ethylene released in the same organ. The transcriptional level of VvACS1 did correlate with ethylene evolution in rachis of ‘Thompson Seedless’ during berry development and storage, which suggested that VvACS1 may have important roles in rachis senescence. In berries of ‘Thompson Seedless’ and ‘Ruby Seedless’, the transcriptional levels of VvACO1, VvACS2, and VvACS6 coincided with ethylene production, indicating possible roles in berry development. Expression of VvACS2–VvACO9 and VvACO1–VvACO3 was not consistent with ethylene production during storage or in response to ethephon treatment, which suggests that the expression of ACS and ACO was affected by other stress factors after harvest.
We thank Anita K. Snyder for critical reading of the manuscript. The work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31201605) and Major Science and Technology Project in Henan Province (151100110900).
ChervinC.Tira-umphonA.TerrierN.ZouineM.SeveracD.RoustanJ.P.2008Stimulation of the grape berry expansion by ethylene and effects on related gene transcripts, over the ripening phasePhysiol. Plant.134534546
Chervin,C.Tira-umphon,A.Terrier,N.Zouine,M.Severac,D.Roustan,J.P.2008Stimulation of the grape berry expansion by ethylene and effects on related gene transcripts, over the ripening phase134534546)| false
KatzE.LagunesP.M.RiovJ.WeissD.GoldschmidtE.E.2004Molecular and physiological evidence suggests the existence of a system II-like pathway of ethylene production in non-climacteric Citrus fruitPlanta219243252
Katz,E.Lagunes,P.M.Riov,J.Weiss,D.Goldschmidt,E.E.2004Molecular and physiological evidence suggests the existence of a system II-like pathway of ethylene production in non-climacteric Citrus fruit219243252)| false
Munoz-RobredoP.GudenschwagerO.ChervinC.Campos-VargasR.González-AgüeroM.DefilippiB.G.2013Study on differential expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes in table grape cvThompson Seedless. Postharvest Biol. Technol.76163169
Munoz-Robredo,P.Gudenschwager,O.Chervin,C.Campos-Vargas,R.González-Agüero,M.Defilippi,B.G.2013Study on differential expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes in table grape cv76163169)| false
RosalesR.Fernandez-CaballeroC.IreneR.MaI.E.CarmenM.Sanchez-BallestaM.T.2013Molecular analysis of the improvement in rachis quality by high CO2 levels in table grapes stored at low temperaturePostharvest Biol. Technol.775058
Rosales,R.Fernandez-Caballero,C.Irene,R.Ma,I.E.Carmen,M.Sanchez-Ballesta,M.T.2013Molecular analysis of the improvement in rachis quality by high CO2 levels in table grapes stored at low temperature775058)| false
RottmannW.H.PeterG.F.OellerP.W.KellerJ.A.ShenN.F.NagyB.P.TaylorL.P.CampbellA.D.TheologisA.19911-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in tomato is encoded by a multigene family whose transcription is induced during fruit and floral senescenceJ. Mol. Biol.222937961
Rottmann,W.H.Peter,G.F.Oeller,P.W.Keller,J.A.Shen,N.F.Nagy,B.P.Taylor,L.P.Campbell,A.D.Theologis,A.19911-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in tomato is encoded by a multigene family whose transcription is induced during fruit and floral senescence222937961)| false
VandesompeleJ.De PreterK.PattynF.PoppeB.Van RoyN.De PaepeA.SpelemanF.2002Accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data by geometric averaging of multiple internal control genes. Genome Biol. 3:RESEARCH0034.1-0034.11
XuM.WangM.H.2012Genome-wide analysis of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family in Arabidopsis, rice, grapevine and poplarAfr. J. Biotechnol.1111061118
Xu,M.Wang,M.H.2012Genome-wide analysis of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family in Arabidopsis, rice, grapevine and poplar1111061118)| false