Effect of Phosphorus Rates on Growth, Yield, and Postharvest Quality of Tomato in a Calcareous Soil

in HortScience

Phosphorous (P) has a significant role in root growth, fruit and seed development, and plant disease resistance. Currently, no P fertilizer recommendations are available for vegetables grown on calcareous soils in Florida. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different P rates on leaf tissue P concentration (LTPC), plant growth, biomass accumulation, fruit yield, and postharvest quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown on a calcareous soil. The experiment was conducted with soils containing 13 to 15 mg·kg−1 of P extracted by ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA). Phosphorus fertilizers were applied at rates of 0, 29, 49, 78, 98, and 118 kg·ha−1 of P before laying polyethylene mulch. Tomatoes were grown using drip irrigation during the winter seasons of 2014 and 2015. No significant responses to P rates were found in LTPC during both growing seasons. Plant height, stem diameter, and leaf chlorophyll content at 30 days after transplanting (DAT) were significantly affected by P rates in 2015, but not in 2014. The responses of plant biomass were predicted by linear models at 60 DAT in 2014 and at 30 DAT in 2015. There were no significant differences in plant biomass at 95 DAT in both years. At the first and second combined harvest, the extralarge fruit yield was unaffected in 2014, but predicted by a quadratic-plateau model with a critical rate of 75 kg·ha−1 in 2015. The total season marketable yields (TSMY) and postharvest qualities were not significantly affected by P rates in either year. Phosphorous rate of 75 kg·ha−1 was sufficient to grow a tomato crop during the winter season in calcareous soils with 13–15 mg·kg−1 of AB-DTPA-extractable P.

Contributor Notes

This research was partially funded by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS). We also thank DiMare Fresh Inc., Homestead, FL, for assistance in tomato harvesting and postharvest evaluation.

This article is based on a presentation given during the Annual Meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society, which was held 4–6 June 2017, in Tampa FL.

Corresponding author. E-mail: qiangzhuuf@gmail.com.

Article Sections

Article References

  • AdebooyeO.C.AdeoyeG.O.Tijani-EniolaH.2006Quality of fruits of three varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill) as affected by phosphorus ratesJ. Agron.5396400

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BartenJ.H.M.ScottJ.W.KedarN.ElkindY.1992Low temperatures induce rough blossom-end scarring of tomato fruit during early flower developmentJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.117298303

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CarrijoO.A.HochmuthG.2000Tomato responses to preplant-incorporated or fertigated phosphorus on soils varying in Mehlich-1 extractable phosphorusHortScience356772

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CastroB.TorrentJ.1995Phosphate availability in calcareous Vertisols and Inceptisols in relation to fertilizer type and soil propertiesFert. Res.40109119

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS)2015Water quality/quantity best management practice for Florida vegetable and agronomic crops. 6 July 2016. <http://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/63017/1444054/VACBMP_FINAL_2015.pdf>

  • FrascaA.C.Ozores-HamptonM.2014Effects of plant population and breeding lines on fresh-market, compact growth habit tomatoes growth, flowering pattern, yield, and postharvest qualityHortScience4915291536

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FreemanJ.H.McAvoyE.J.BoydN.DittmarP.J.Ozores-HamptonM.SmithH.A.ValladG.E.WebbS.E.2014aTomato production p. 183–204. In: G.E. Vallad J.H. Freeman and P.J. Dittmar (eds.). 2014-2015 Vegetable and small fruit production handbook of Florida. Vance Publishers Lenexa KS

  • FreemanJ.H.ValladG.E.LiuG.SimonneE.H.HochmuthG.J.DukesM.D.ZotarelliL.NolingJ.W.BottsD.A.DittmarP.J.SmithS.A.2014bVegetable production in Florida p. 1–6. In: G.E. Vallad J.H. Freeman and P.J. Dittmar (eds.). 2014-2015 Vegetable and small fruit production handbook of Florida. Vance Publishers Lenexa KS

  • HartzT.K.MiyaoE.M.MullenR.J.CahnM.D.2001Potassium fertilization effects on processing tomato yield and fruit qualityActa Hort.542127133

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HatfieldJ.L.PruegerJ.H.2015Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and developmentWeather Clim. Extrem.10410

  • HavlinJ.L.BeatonJ.D.TisdaleS.L.NelsonW.L.2005Phosphorus p. 160–198. In: Soil fertility and fertilizers: An introduction to nutrient management. Pearson Education Inc. Upper Saddle River NJ

  • HochmuthG.CarrijoO.ShulerK.1999Tomato yield and fruit size did not respond to P fertilization of a sandy soil testing very high in Mehlich-1 PHortScience34653656

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HochmuthG.MaynardD.VavrinaC.HanlonE.Simonne.E.2012Plant tissue analysis and interpretation for vegetable crops in Florida. Univ. Florida Inst. Food Agr. Sci. Electronic Data Info. Source. 10 July 2016. <http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep081>

  • LambertsM.OlczykT.LiY.C.BryanH.H.CodalloM.RamosL.1997Field demonstrations of phosphorus levels for vine-ripe and mature-green tomatoes in Miami-Dade CountyProc. Annu. Meet. Fla. State Hort. Soc.110266268

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LiY.C.O’HairS.MylavarapuR.OlczykT.LambertsM.2000Demonstration of phosphorus fertilizer management for potato grown in a calcareous soilProc. Annu. Meet. Fla. State Hort. Soc.113237239

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LiuK.ZhangT.Q.TanC.S.AstatkieT.2011Responses of fruit yield and quality of processing tomato to drip-irrigation and fertilizers phosphorus and potassiumAgron. J.10313391345

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MehlichA.1984Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: A modification of Mehlich 2 extractantCommun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.1514091416

  • MengelK.KirkbyE.A.1987Phosphorus p. 403–420. In: Principles of plant nutrition. International Potash Institute Bern Switzerland

  • MylavarapuR.S.d’AngeloW.WilkinsonN.MoonD.2014UF/IFAS Extension soil testing laboratory analytical procedures and training manual. Univ. Florida Inst. Food Agr. Sci. Electronic Data Info. Source. 10 July 2016. <http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss312>

  • OkeM.AhnT.SchofieldA.PaliyathG.2005Effects of phosphorus fertilizer supplementation on processing quality and functional food ingredients in TomatoJ. Agr. Food Chem.5315311538

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OlczykT.LiY.SimonneE.MylavarapuR.2003Reduced phosphorus fertilization effects on yield and quality of sweet corn grown on a calcareous soilProc. Annu. Meet. Fla. State Hort. Soc.1169597

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OlsenS.R.ColeC.V.WatanabeF.S.DeanL.A.1954Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA circular 939. U.S. Government Printing Office Washington DC

  • OlsonS.M.FreemanJ.2016Physiological nutritional and other disorders of tomato fruit. Univ. Florida Inst. Food Agr. Sci. Electronic Data Info. Source. HS954. 10 July 2016. <http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs200>

  • Ozores-HamptonM.McAvoyG.2015Blossom drop reduced fruit set and post-pollination disorders in tomato. Univ. Florida Inst. Food Agr. Sci. Electronic Data Info. Source. HS1195. 9 Feb. 2017. <http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1195>

  • Ozores-HamptonM.SimonneE.RokaF.MorganK.SargentS.SnodgrassC.McAvoyE.2012Nitrogen rates effects on the yield, nutritional status, fruit quality, and profitability of tomato grown in the spring with subsurface irrigationHortScience4711291135

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PerneznyK.DatnoffL.E.MuellerT.CollinsJ.1996Losses in fresh-market tomato production in Florida due to target spot and bacterial spot and the benefits of protectant fungicidesPlant Dis.80559563

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Potash and Phosphate Institute1999aFunctions of phosphorus in plantsBetter Crops Plant Food8367

  • Potash and Phosphate Institute1999bImportant factors affecting crop response to phosphorusBetter Crops Plant Food831618

  • RaghothamaK.G.KarthikeyanA.S.2005Phosphate acquisitionPlant Soil2743749

  • SainjuU.M.DrisR.SinghB.2003Mineral nutrition of tomatoJ. Food Agric. Environ.1176183

  • SelfJ.2000Phosphorus levels in Colorado soils p. 7. In: R. Waskom J. Stednick and J. Davis (eds.). Agronomy News Mar. 2000. Colorado State University Fort Collins CO

  • ShulerK.HochmuthG.1995Field tests of phosphorus fertilization of tomato growing in high-P soils in Palm Beach County, FloridaProc. Annu. Meet. Fla. State Hort. Soc.108227232

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SoltanpourP.N.SchwabA.P.1977A new soil test for simultaneous extraction of macro- and micro-nutrients in alkaline soilsCommun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.8195207

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)1997United States standards for grades of fresh tomatoes. USDA Agriculture Marketing Service. Washington DC. 30 May 2016. <https://www.hort.purdue.edu/prod_quality/quality/tomatfrh.pdf>

  • U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)20142012 Census County-level data Florida. USDA Census of Agriculture Washington DC. 7 Oct. 2016. <https://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2012/Full_Report/Volume_1,_Chapter_2_County_Level/Florida/st12_2_029_029.pdf>

  • U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)20172016 State agriculture overview Florida. USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Washington DC. 11 Apr. 2017. <https://www.nass.usda.gov/Quick_Stats/Ag_Overview/stateOverview.php?state=FLORIDA>

  • VanceC.P.Uhde-StoneC.AllanD.L.2003Phosphorus acquisition and use: Critical adaptations by plants for securing a nonrenewable resourceNew Phytol.157423447

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • von WandruszkaR.2006Phosphorus retention in calcareous soils and the effect of organic matter on its mobilityGeochem. Trans.7614

  • WiedenfeldB.ProvinT.2010Corn responses to phosphorus application at different soil phosphorus levels on a calcareous soilCommun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.4118321837

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZhangX.S.LiaoH.ChenQ.ChristieP.LiX.L.ZhangF.S.2007Response of tomato on calcareous soils to different seedbed phosphorus application ratesPedosphere177076

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZhouM.LiY.2001Phosphorus-sorption characteristics of calcareous soils and limestone from the southern Everglades and adjacent farmlandsSoil Sci. Soc. Amer. J.6514041412

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZhuQ.Ozores-HamptonM.LiY.2016Comparison of Mehlich-3 and ammonium bicarbonate-DTPA for the extraction of phosphorus and potassium in calcareous soils from FloridaCommun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.4723152324

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Article Information

Google Scholar

Related Content

Article Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 154 154 14
Full Text Views 117 117 1
PDF Downloads 9 9 1