Handheld versus Mobile Data Acquisitions for Spatial Analysis of Natural Turfgrass Sports Fields

in HortScience

Research compared handheld and mobile data acquisitions of soil moisture [volumetric water content (VWC)], soil compaction (penetration resistance), and turfgrass vigor [normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI)] of four natural turfgrass sports fields using two sampling grid sizes (4.8 × 4.8 m and 4.8 × 9.6 m). Differences between the two sampling grid sizes were minimal, indicating that sampling with handheld devices using a 4.8 × 9.6 m grid (120–130 samples) would achieve results similar to the smaller grid size. Central tendencies and data distributions varied among the handheld and mobile devices. Moderate to strong correlation coefficients were observed for VWC and NDVI; however, weak to moderate correlation coefficients were observed for penetration resistance at three of the four locations. Kriged maps of VWC and NDVI displayed similar patterns of variability between handheld and mobile devices, but at different magnitudes. Spatial maps of penetration resistance were inconsistent due to device design and user reliability. Consequently, mobile devices may provide the most reliable results for penetration resistance of natural turfgrass sports fields.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author. E-mail: cmstra4@uga.edu.

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    Relationship between handheld and mobile data acquisitions for sampling volumetric water content (%) on natural turfgrass sports fields at Oconee Veterans Park (OVP), Flowery Branch (FB), North Oconee High School (NOHS), and UGA Rec Sports (RS) at the evaluated sampling grid sizes. The box-and-whisker plots show the median (bar), the upper and lower quartiles (top and bottom of the box, respectively), the whiskers (maximum and minimum values excluding outliers), and outliers (circles).

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    Kriged maps of volumetric water content (%) from handheld and mobile data acquisitions on natural turfgrass sports fields at Oconee Veterans Park, Flowery Branch, North Oconee High School, and UGA Rec Sports using two sampling grid sizes.

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    Relationship between handheld and mobile data acquisitions for sampling penetration resistance (MPa) on natural turfgrass sports fields at Oconee Veterans Park (OVP), Flowery Branch (FB), North Oconee High School (NOHS), and UGA Rec Sports (RS) at the evaluated sampling grid sizes. The box-and-whisker plots show the median (bar), the upper and lower quartiles (top and bottom of the box, respectively), the whiskers (maximum and minimum values excluding outliers), and outliers (circles).

  • View in gallery

    Kriged maps of penetration resistance (MPa) from handheld and mobile data acquisitions on natural turfgrass sports fields at Oconee Veterans Park, Flowery Branch, North Oconee High School, and UGA Rec Sports using two sampling grid sizes.

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    Relationship between handheld and mobile data acquisitions for sampling normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI; unit less with best = 1) on natural turfgrass sports fields at Oconee Veterans Park (OVP), Flowery Branch (FB), North Oconee High School (NOHS), and UGA Rec Sports (RS) at the evaluated sampling grid sizes. The box-and-whisker plots show the median (bar), the upper and lower quartiles (top and bottom of the box, respectively), the whiskers (maximum and minimum values excluding outliers), and outliers (circles).

  • View in gallery

    Kriged maps of normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI; unit less with best = 1) from handheld and mobile data acquisitions on natural turfgrass sports fields at Oconee Veterans Park, Flowery Branch, North Oconee High School, and UGA Rec Sports using two sampling grid sizes.

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