Composition of Commercial Strawberry Cultivars and Advanced Selections as Affected by Season, Harvest, and Postharvest Storage

in HortScience

Strawberries are one of the most important food crops grown in Florida, with a harvested area of ≈10,000 acres. The University of Florida strawberry breeding program develops cultivars adapted to this region and its particular weather conditions, with a major aim of increasing overall quality. The objective of this study was to compare the fruit of advanced breeding selections to those of commercial cultivars, for compositional attributes. Seven different strawberry genotypes were compared at harvest and after 7 days at 4 °C across multiple harvest dates during two consecutive years. Compositional attributes were highly influenced by year, harvest date within a year, genotype, and storage. Overall, compared with other genotypes, selection FL 09-127 exhibited consistently higher soluble solids and total sugar (TS) contents at harvest and after cold storage. Higher ascorbic acid (AA) and phenolic contents at harvest were observed in selection FL 07-193. However, its anthocyanin content was among the lowest. In contrast, FL 10-47 exhibited relatively low AA content at harvest but consistently high total anthocyanins (TACs) and total phenolic (TP) contents after storage. Overall, results from this study provide valuable information to the breeding process by identifying new genotypes with improved compositional attributes combined with suitable quality characteristics after cold storage.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author. E-mail: mariacecilia@usf.edu.

Article Sections

Article Figures

  • View in gallery

    Weight loss of commercial strawberry cultivars and advanced selections obtained on four harvest dates during two consecutive years. (A) After 7 d at 4 °C for 2012; (B) after 7 d at 4 °C for 2013. Data are presented as means ± standard errors. Mean separations by the Fisher’s least significant difference test at P < 0.05.

  • View in gallery

    Soluble solids content (SSC) of commercial strawberry cultivars and advanced selections obtained on four harvest dates during two consecutive years. (A) SSC at harvest for 2012; (B) SSC after 7 d at 4 °C for 2012; (C) SSC at harvest for 2013; and (D) SSC after 7 d at 4 °C for 2013. Data are presented as means ± standard errors. Mean separations by the Fisher’s least significant difference test at P < 0.05.

  • View in gallery

    Total sugar (TS) content of commercial strawberry cultivars and advanced selections obtained on four harvest dates during two consecutive years. (A) TS at harvest for 2012; (B) TS after 7 d at 4 °C for 2012; (C) TS contents at harvest for 2013; and (D) TS after 7 d at 4 °C for 2013. Data are presented as means ± standard errors. Mean separations by the Fisher’s least significant difference test at P < 0.05.

  • View in gallery

    Titratable acidity (TA) of commercial strawberry cultivars and advanced selections obtained on four harvest dates during two consecutive years. (A) TA at harvest for 2012; (B) TA after 7 d at 4 °C for 2012; (C) TA contents at harvest for 2013; and (D) TA after 7 d at 4 °C for 2013. Data are presented as means ± standard errors. Mean separations by the Fisher’s least significant difference test at P < 0.05.

  • View in gallery

    Total ascorbic acid (AA) content of commercial strawberry cultivars and advanced selections obtained on four harvest dates during two consecutive years. (A) AA at harvest for 2012; (B) AA after 7 d at 4 °C for 2012; (C) AA contents at harvest for 2013; and (D) AA after 7 d at 4 °C for 2013. Data are presented as means ± standard errors. Mean separations by the Fisher’s least significant difference test at P < 0.05.

  • View in gallery

    Total phenolic content (TPC) of commercial strawberry cultivars and advanced selections obtained on four harvest dates during two consecutive years. (A) TPC at harvest for 2012; (B) TPC after 7 d at 4 °C for 2012; (C) TPC contents at harvest for 2013; and (D) TPC after 7 d at 4 °C for 2013. Data are presented as means ± standard errors. Mean separations by the Fisher’s least significant difference test at P < 0.05.

  • View in gallery

    Total anthocyanin content (TAC) of commercial strawberry cultivars and advanced selections obtained on eight harvest dates during two consecutive years. (A) TAC at harvest for 2012 year; (B) TAC after 7 d at 4 °C for 2012; (C) TAC contents at harvest for 2013; and (D) TAC after 7 d at 4 °C for 2013. Data are presented as means ± standard errors. Mean separations by the Fisher’s least significant difference test at P < 0.05.

Article References

  • AabyK.SkredeG.WrolstadR.E.2005Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities in flesh and achenes of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa)J. Agr. Food Chem.5340324040

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ayala-ZavalaJ.F.WangS.Y.WangC.Y.Gonzales-AguilarA.G.2004Effect of storage temperatures on antioxidant capacity and aroma compounds in strawberry fruitLWT-Food Sci. and Technol.37687695

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BridleP.García-VigueraC.1997Analysis of anthocyanins in strawberries and elderberries. A comparison of capillary zone electrophoresis and HPLCFood Chem.59299304

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CayoY.D.P.NunesM.C.N.WhitakerV.2013Effect of harvest date on the soluble solids content and sugar profile of commercial strawberry cultivars and advanced selections from the University of FloridaProc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.126180183

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CliffordM.N.2000Anthocyanins nature, occurrence and dietary burdenJ. Sci. Food Agr.8010631072

  • CordenunsiB.R.GenoveseM.I.NascimentoJ.R.O.HassimotoN.M.A.Dos SantosR.J.LajoloF.M.2005Effect of temperature on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of three strawberry cultivarsFood Chem.91113121

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CordenunsiB.R.NascimentoJ.R.O.LajoloF.M.2003Physico-chemical changes related to quality of five strawberry fruit cultivars during cool storageFood Chem.83167173

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DaveyM.W.MontaguM.V.InzéD.SanmartinM.KanellisA.SmirnoffN.BenzieI.J.J.StrainJ.J.FavellD.FletcherJ.2000Plant L-ascorbic acid: Chemistry, function, metabolism, bioavailability and effects of processingJ. Sci. Food Agr.80825860

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Díaz-PérezJ.C.1998Transpiration rates in eggplant fruit as affected by fruit and calyx sizePostharvest Biol. Technol.134549

  • FerreyraR.M.ViñaS.Z.MugridgeA.ChavesA.R.2007Growth and ripening year effects on antioxidant capacity of strawberry cultivar ‘Selva’Sci. Hort.1122732

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FolinD.CiocalteuV.1927On tyrosine and tryptophane determinations in proteinsJ. Biol. Chem.73627650

  • FredericksC.H.FanningK.J.GidleyM.J.NetzelG.ZabarasD.HerringtonM.NetzelM.2012High-anthocyanin strawberries through cultivar selectionJ. Sci. Food Agr.93846852

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GreenA.1971Soft fruits p. 375–409. In: A.C. Hulme (ed.). The biochemistry of fruits and their products Vol. 2. Academic Press London UK

  • HäkkinenS.H.TörrönenA.R.2000Content of flavonols and selected phenolic acids in strawberries and Vaccinium species: Influence of cultivar, cultivation site and techniqueFood Res. Intl.33517524

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HalvorsenB.CarlsenM.H.PhillipsK.M.BohnS.K.HolteK.JrJacobsD.R.BlomhoffR.2006Content of redox-active compounds (i.e., antioxidants) in food consumed in the United StatesAmer. J. Clin. Nutr.8495135

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HalvorsenB.L.HolteK.MyhstadM.C.W.BarikmoI.HvattumE.RembergS.F.2002A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plantsJ. Nutr.132461471

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HarrisR.S.1975Effects of agricultural practices on the composition of foods p. 33–57. In: R.S. Harris and E. Karmas (eds.). Nutritional evaluation of food processing 2nd ed. AVI Westport CT

  • JinP.WangS.Y.WangC.Y.ZhengY.2011Effect of cultural system and storage temperature on antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds in strawberriesFood Chem.124262270

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JouquandC.ChandlerC.PlottoA.GoodnerK.2008A sensory and chemical analysis of fresh strawberries over harvest dates and years reveals factors that affect eating qualityJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.133859867

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KaderA.Hess-PierceB.AlmenarE.2003Relative contribution of fruit constituents to soluble solids content measured by a refractometerHortScience38833

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KaderA.A.1988Influence of preharvest and postharvest environment on nutritional composition of fruits and vegetables p. 18–32. In: B. Quebedeaux and F.A. Bliss (eds.). Horticulture and human health: Contributions of fruits and vegetables. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Horticulture and Human Health. Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs NJ

  • KafkasE.KoşarM.PaydaşS.KafkasS.BaşerK.H.C.2007Quality characteristics of strawberry genotypes at different maturation statesFood Chem.10012291236

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KähkönenM.P.HopiaA.HeinonenM.2001Berry phenolics and their antioxidant activityJ. Agr. Food Chem.4940764082

  • KaltW.2005Effects of production and processing factors on major fruit and vegetable antioxidantsJ. Food Sci.70R11R19

  • KaysS.J.1997Postharvest physiology of perishable plant products. Exon Press Athens GA

  • KimJ.K.MoonK.D.1993Effect of PE film thickness on MA (modified atmosphere) storage of strawberryJ. Korean Soc. Food Nutr.227884

  • KissingerM.Tuvia-AlkalaiS.ShalomY.FallikE.ElkindY.JenksM.A.GoodwinM.S.2005Characterization of physiological and biochemical factors associated with postharvest water loss in ripe pepper fruit during storageJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.130735741

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KleinB.P.1987Nutritional consequences of minimal processing of fruits and vegetablesJ. Food Qual.10179193

  • LeeS.K.KaderA.A.2000Pre-harvest and post-harvest factors influencing vitamin C content of horticultural cropsPostharvest Biol. Technol.20207220

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopes-da-SilvaF.De Pascual-TeresaS.Rivas-GonzaloJ.C.Santuos-BuelgaC.2002Identification of anthocyanin pigments in strawberry (cv. Camarosa) by LC using DAD and ESI-MS detectionEur. Food Res. Technol.214248253

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • López-SerranoM.Ros BarcelóA.2001Histochemical localization and developmental expression of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in strawberriesJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.1262732

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LowndsN.K.BanarasM.BoslandP.W.1993Relationships between postharvest water loss and physical properties of pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L.)HortScience2811821184

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MaasJ.L.WangS.Y.GallettaG.J.1996Health enhancing properties of strawberry fruit. In: M.P. Pritts C.K. Chandler and T.E. Crocker (eds.). Proceedings of the IV North American Strawberry Conference Orlando FL 1118

  • MacKenzieS.J.ChandlerC.K.2009The late year decline in strawberry fruit soluble solid content observed in Florida is caused by rising temperaturesActa Hort.842843846

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MonteroT.M.MollaE.M.EstebanR.M.Lopez-AndreuF.J.1996Quality attributes of strawberry during ripeningSci. Hort.65239250

  • NaiduK.A.2003Vitamin C in human health and disease is still a mystery? An overviewNutr. J.27

  • NelsonJ.W.BarrittB.H.WolfordE.R.1972Influence of location and cultivar on color and chemical composition of strawberry fruit p. 1–7. Wash. Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull. 74

  • NobileS.WoodhillJ.M.1981Vitamin C: The mysterious redox-system a trigger of life? MTP Press Limited Boston MA

  • NunesM.C.N.2008Color atlas of postharvest quality of fruits and vegetables. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ames IA

  • NunesM.C.N.2015Correlations between subjective quality and physicochemical attributes of fresh fruits and vegetablesPostharvest Biol. Technol.1074354

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NunesM.C.N.BrechtJ.K.MoraisA.SargentS.A.1998Controlling temperature and water loss to maintain ascorbic acid levels in strawberries during postharvest handlingJ. Food Sci.6310331036

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NunesM.C.N.BrechtJ.K.MoraisA.SargentS.A.2005Possible influences of water loss and polyphenol oxidase activity on anthocyanin content and discoloration in fresh ripe strawberry (cv. Oso Grande) during storage at 1° CJ. Food Sci.707984

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NunesM.C.N.EmondJ.P.2007Relationship between weight loss and visual quality of fruits and vegetablesProc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.120235245

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PellegriniN.SerafiniM.ColombiB.Del RioD.SalvatoreS.BianchiM.BrighentiF.2003Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assaysJ. Nutr.13328122819

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perkins-VeazieP.1995Growth and ripening of strawberry fruitHort. Rev.17267297

  • Pozo-InsfranD.D.DuncanC.E.YuK.C.TalcottS.T.ChandlerC.K.2006Polyphenolics, ascorbic acid, and soluble solids concentrations of strawberry cultivars and selections grown in a winter annual hill production systemJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.138996

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ProteggenteA.R.PannalaA.S.PagangaG.Van BurenL.WagnerE.WisemanS.2002The antioxidant activity of regularly consumed fruits and vegetables reflects their phenolic and vitamin C compositionFree Radic. Res.36217233

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RekikaD.KhanizadehS.DeschênesM.LevasseurA.CharlesM.T.TsaoR.YangR.2005Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of selected strawberry genotypesHortScience4017771781

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SadlerG.D.MurphyP.A.1998pH and titratable acidity. In: S.S. Nielsen (ed.). Food analysis. 2nd ed. Aspen Publishers MD

  • ScalzoJ.PolitiA.PellegriniN.MezzettiB.BattinoM.2005Plant genotype affects total antioxidant capacity and phenolic contents in fruitNutr.21207213

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SchwietermanM.L.ColquhounT.A.JaworskiE.A.BartoshukL.M.GilbertJ.L.TiemanD.M.OdabasiA.Z.MoskowitzH.R.FoltaK.M.KleeH.J.SimsC.A.WhitakerV.M.ClarkD.G.2014Strawberry flavor: Diverse chemical compositions, a yearly influence, and effects on sensory perceptionPLoS One9e88446

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShinY.LiuR.H.NockJ.HollidayD.WatkinsC.B.2007Temperature and relative humidity effects on quality, total ascorbic acid, phenolics and flavonoids concentrations, and antioxidant activity of strawberryPostharvest Biol. Technol.45349357

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShinY.RyuJ.A.LiuR.H.NockJ.F.WatkinsC.B.2008Harvest maturity, storage temperature and relative humidity affect fruit quality, antioxidant contents and activity, and inhibition of cell proliferation of strawberry fruitPostharvest Biol. Technol.49201209

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SinghA.SinghB.K.DekaB.C.SanwalS.K.PatelR.K.VermaM.R.2011The genetic variability, inheritance and inter-relationships of ascorbic acid, β-carotene, phenol and anthocyanin content in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.)Sci. Hort.1298690

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SingletonV.L.RossiJ.A.1965Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic- phosphotungistic acid reagentsAmer. J. Enol. Viticult.16144157

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SpaydS.E.MorrisJ.R.1981Effects of immature fruit and holding on strawberry puree and color stabilityJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.106211216

  • StevensM.A.1974Varietal influence on nutritional value p. 87–110. In: P.L. White and N. Selvey (eds.). Nutritional qualities of fresh fruits and vegetables futura Mt. Kisco NY

  • StrumK.KoronD.StamparF.2003The composition of fruit of different strawberry varieties depending on maturity stageFood Chem.83417422

  • TimberlakeC.F.BridleP.1982Distribution of anthocyanins in food plant p. 126–157. In: P. Markakis (ed.). Anthocyanins as food colors. Academic Press New York NY

  • TulipaniS.MarzbanG.HerndlA.LaimerM.MezzettiB.BattinoM.2011Influence of environmental and genetic factors on health-related compounds in strawberryFood Chem.124906913

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • University of Florida/IFAS2016Report generator. Archived weather data. Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN). 7 Sept. 2016. <http://fawn.ifas.ufl.edu./data/>.

  • USDA2015Noncitrus fruits and nuts 2014 preliminary summary. National Agricultural Statistics Service. 16 Nov. 2015. <http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Georgia/Publications/Current_News_Release/2015/preliminary_noncit14.pdf>.

  • WhitakerV.ChandlerC.PeresN.NunesM.C.N.PlottoA.SimsC.2015SensationTM ‘Florida127’ strawberryHortScience5014

  • WhitakerV.M.ChandlerC.K.SantosB.M.PeresN.A.NunesM.C.PlottoA.SimsC.2012Winterstar™ ‘FL 05-107’ strawberryHortScience47296298

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WhitakerV.M.HasingT.ChandlerC.PlottoA.BaldwinE.2011Historical trends in strawberry fruit quality revealed by a trial of University of Florida cultivars and advanced selectionsHortScience46553557

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Article Information

Google Scholar

Related Content

Article Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 78 78 3
Full Text Views 42 42 0
PDF Downloads 6 6 0