‘Alisha’, ‘Anamaria’, ‘Bie’, ‘Bita’, ‘Caelan’, ‘Ivone’, ‘Lawrence’, ‘Margarete’, and ‘Victoria’ Sweetpotato

in HortScience

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It takes on average 7 to 8 years to breed a suitable sweetpotato cultivar in Africa adapted to local farmer and consumer needs. For southern Africa, the major sweetpotato breeding objectives are high storage root and vine yield, high β-carotene levels, and drought adaptation. Orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) cultivars alleviate vitamin A deficiency in African rural households (Hotz et al., 2012; Low et al., 2007). Furthermore, sweetpotato needs in southern Africa a critical amount of vine yield to plant the next growing season and for feed, particularly where land availability is scarce. However, food and fodder dual-purpose cultivars were not available in African sweetpotato germplasm (Niyireba et al., 2013) until the recent release of RW cultivars by the Rwanda Agriculture Board and the International Potato Center (CIP) (Shumbusha et al., 2014). Purple-fleshed sweetpotatoes (PFSP) are the sources of antioxidants (Teow et al., 2007), and anthocyanins derived from PFSP affect the growth of human retinal pigment damage-protective activities on epithelial cells (Kubow et al., 2016; Sun et al., 2015). Moreover, PFSP can be used for natural food coloring, which is a relatively new market for sweetpotato and cultivars high in anthocyanin, are increasingly becoming popular in Asia used fresh or in a variety of processed snacks (Gilbert, 2005; Timberlake and Henry, 1988). This is a report on nine new cultivars bred together by CIP and the Instituto de Investigação Agrarian de Mozambique (IIAM).

Origin

The nine new cultivars are known as (breeding code used during evaluation in brackets): ‘Alisha’ (Uejumula-U07-13), ‘Anamaria’ (MUSGP0646-126), and ‘Ivone’ (MUSG11022-11) OFSP; ‘Bie’ (MUSG11049-7), ‘Caelan’ (MUSG11016-6), and ‘Margarete’ (MUSG11016-1) PFSP; and ‘Bita’ (MUSG11016-12), ‘Lawrence’ (MUSG11016-16), and ‘Victoria’ (MCKSG0820-6) dual-purpose sweetpotato (Fig. 1). This sweetpotato germplasm was derived from either an open-pollinated polycross breeding nursery or a biparental crossing block setup by CIP in Mozambique. The parents were African landraces, CIP breeding clones, and cultivar introductions. ‘Alisha’, ‘Anamaria’, and ‘Victoria’ are selections from an open-pollinated progeny polycross nursery and their female parents are ‘Ejumula’, ‘105421’, and ‘98-21-1’, respectively, while their male parents are unknown. ‘Bie’ and ‘Ivone’ are selections from the biparental crosses ‘Tacna’ × ‘Resisto’ and ‘Manhissane’ × ‘Resisto’, respectively, while ‘Bita’, ‘Lawrence’, ‘Margarete’, and ‘Caelan’ are selections from ‘Huambachero’ × ‘Resisto’.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Foliage and storage root of sweetpotato bred cultivars with orange and mostly purple flesh cultivars evaluated in Mozambique, 2011 to 2014: ‘Alisha’, ‘Anamaria’, and ‘Ivone’ orange-fleshed (top row); ‘Caelan’, ‘Bie’, and ‘Margarete’ purple-fleshed (center row); and ‘Lawrence’, ‘Victoria’, and ‘Bita’ dual-purpose.

Citation: HortScience horts 51, 5; 10.21273/HORTSCI.51.5.597

Description and Production

The nine sweetpotato cultivars (Table 1; Fig. 1) were characterized using descriptors developed by CIP, Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC), and International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) (1991). These cultivars are either semierect or spreading plant type with short and thin internodes. Most cultivars have green vine pigmentation except the PFSP ‘Margarete’ and ‘Bie’, whose predominant vine pigmentation is purple. ‘Bie’, ‘Bita’, ‘Caelan’, and ‘Margarete’ have a purple secondary pigmentation. The mature leaf shape descriptors are diverse among these nine clones, while their foliage is mostly green except for ‘Victoria’ and ‘Ivone’ that have purple foliage or green foliage with a purple edge, respectively. Most cultivars have purple petiole pigmentation except ‘Alisha’, ‘Anamaria’, and ‘Ivone’. Their storage root shape is either elliptic (most of them) or ovate (‘Bita’ and ‘Caelan’) and none has surface defects. The skin color varies from cream to dark purple (only in PFSP), while their flesh is either orange (most of them) or purple (‘Bie’, ‘Bita’, ‘Caelan’, and ‘Margarete’).

Table 1.

Morphological descriptors of nine sweetpotato newly bred cultivars evaluated in Mozambique, 2011 to 2014.z

Table 1.

Performance Across Mozambique as a Proxy for Southern Africa

True seeds were scarified with concentrated sulfuric acid, and thereafter germinated to get seedlings whose vine cuttings were used to establish the breeding trials with two replications. There were 30,836 clones included in breeding trials from 2011 to 2014, of which 72 (27 OFSP, 25 PFSP, and 20 dual purpose) had high yield and were therefore selected for multienvironment trials (METs) at experimental stations of the IIAM in Chokwe (Gaza Province; 24°32 S, 33°01 E, 33 masl; silt clay loam, brown to dark grey soils, deep soils; April–November: 623 mm rainfall; a drought-screening site in semiarid agroecology), Gurue (Zambézia Province; 15°19 S, 36°6 E, 1000 masl; red to dark brown soils, clay loam, deep, well drained, good natural fertility; July–September: 1000 mm rainfall; virus-screening site), and Umbeluzi (Maputo Province, 26°03 S, 32°23 E, 12 masl; alluvial stratified soil: sandy loam in the top soil to sandy at 1.75 m depth; available water capacity of 200 mm at the 1.75 m deep soil profile; May–September: 679 mm rainfall).

The experimental layout of each MET was a randomized complete block design with four replications comprising 23 plants per plot for data recording. The data were analyzed using SAS (SAS Institute, Inc., 1997) for each MET separately and across respective MET set by an analysis of variance with a least significant difference comparison.

The new sweetpotato bred cultivars due to their orange flesh had almost 4-fold significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater storage root yield than control cultivar, Chingova (Table 2), while two of them, ‘Alisha’ and ‘Ivone’, had significantly lower dry matter content than the control cultivar, Chingova (Table 3). The foliage yield and harvest index of these bred cultivars were significantly above that of the cultivar control.

Table 2.

Storage root and forage yields of new orange-fleshed sweetpotato bred cultivars evaluated in sites in Mozambique, 2011 to 2014.

Table 2.
Table 3.

Dry matter (DM), harvest index (HI), β-carotene (BC), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) content and taste orange-fleshed sweetpotato bred cultivars evaluated across sites (Chokwé, Gurué, and Umbeluzi) in Mozambique, 2011 to 2014.

Table 3.

The storage root yield of the dual-purpose sweetpotato ‘Bita’, ‘Lawrence’, and ‘Victoria’ was not significantly higher than the control cultivars, while their foliage yield was within the range of the control cultivars, and that of ‘Bita’ equal or significantly above that of the control cultivars (Table 4). The harvest index of ‘Lawrence’ was significantly higher than all control cultivars, while that of ‘Victoria’ was significantly above that of ‘Resisto’. The dry matter content of the storage roots of ‘Bita’ and ‘Lawrence’ was significantly higher than that of ‘Jonathan’.

Table 4.

Storage root (SRY) and foliage (FY) yields, dry matter (DM), harvest index, β- carotene (BC), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and taste of dual-purpose sweetpotato bred cultivars evaluated at three sites (Chokwé, Gurué, and Umbeluzi) in Mozambique, 2011 to 2014.

Table 4.

The storage root yield and harvest index of the highest yielding PFSP, ‘Margarete’ were significantly greater than the average of the trial mean (Table 5), while the other PFSP, ‘Caelan’, had a significantly higher dry matter content than the trial mean.

Table 5.

Storage root (SRY) and foliage (FY) yields, dry matter (DM), harvest index, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content, and taste of purple-fleshed sweetpotato bred cultivars from a breeding population that was evaluated at three sites (Chokwé, Gurué and Umbeluzi) in Mozambique, 2011 to 2014.

Table 5.

Quality

The β-carotene content in the flesh of the storage roots of the OFSP ‘Alisha’ and ‘Ivone’ was higher than those of the highest yielding control cultivar Chingova (Table 3). The dual-purpose sweetpotato, ‘Victoria’, had significantly higher Fe and Zn content than the control cultivars (Table 4), while the Fe content in the storage roots of ‘Alisha’ was also high. The taste of the OFSP was equal or better than that of the cultivar checks (Tables 3 and 4), while that of the PFSP was above the average of the evaluated genotypes (Table 5). PFSP cultivars show high anthocyanin in their roots (Xu et al., 2015), and their derived products such as fermented juice may contain essential antioxidants and show suitable sensory quality (Ray et al., 2011). These dual-purpose, OFSP and PFSP cultivars may lead to changes in sweetpotato consumption in Mozambique and neighboring countries in southern Africa. A social marketing strategy targeting diverse users could facilitate their spread and use on the continent. Capacity building through training on postharvest processing, seed multiplication, and marketing may contribute further to this endeavor.

Availability

The nine sweetpotato bred germplasm proposed for cultivar release are kept in the CIP breeding nursery in Mozambique. They are available for further use from CIP, which distributes its germplasm using a material transfer agreement. Requests for the dual-purpose, OFSP and PFSP should be sent to Dr. Maria Andrade, International Potato Center, IIAM, Av. FPLM 2698, P.O. Box 2100, Maputo, Mozambique or to M.Andrade@cgiar.org.

References

  • CIP AVRDC and IPBGR1991Descriptors for sweetpotato. In: Z. Huamán (ed.). International Board for Plant Genetic Resources Rome Italy

  • GilbertJ.C.2005Coloring foods and beveragesFood Technol.593844

  • HotzC.LoechlC.LubowaA.TumwineJ.K.NdeeziG.MasawiA.N.BainganaR.CarriquiryA.de BrauwA.MeenakshiJ.V.GilliganD.O.2012Introduction of β-carotene-rich orange sweet potato in rural Uganda results in increased vitamin A intake among children and women and improved vitamin A status among childrenJ. Nutr.14218711880

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KubowS.IskandarM.M.SaballyK.AzadiB.SadeghiS.KumarathasanP.DasD.D.PrakashS.BurgosG.zum FeldeT.2016Biotransformation of anthocyanins from two purpled-fleshed sweetpotato accessions in a dynamic gastrointestinal systemFood Chem.192171177

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LowJ.W.ArimondM.OsmanN.CunguaraB.ZanoF.TschirleyD.2007A food-based approach introducing orange-fleshed sweet potatoes increased vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations among young children in rural MozambiqueJ. Nutr.13713201327

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NiyirebaT.N.EbongC.AgiliS.LowJ.LukuyuB.KiruiJ.NdirigweJ.UwimanaG.KankudiyeL.MutimuraM.GahakwaD.GachuiriC.K.2013Evaluation of dual purpose sweet potato [Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam] cultivars for root and fodder production in Eastern Province RwandaAgr. J.8242247

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RayR.C.PandaS.K.SwainM.R.SivakumarP.S.2011Proximate composition and sensory evaluation of anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) wineIntl. J. Food Sci. Technol.47452458

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SAS Institute Inc1997SAS/STAT user’s guide release 6.12. SAS Institute Inc. Cary NC

  • ShumbushaD.NdirigweJ.KankundiyeL.MusabyemunguA.GahawaD.NdayemeyeP.S.MwangaR.O.M.2014‘RW11-17’, ‘RW11-1860’, ‘RW11-2419’, ‘RW11-2560’, ‘RW11-2910’, and ‘RW11-4923’ sweetpotatoHortScience4913491352

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SunM.LuX.HaoL.WuT.ZhaoH.WangC.2015The influences of purple sweet potato anthocyanin on the growth characteristics of human retinal pigment epithelial cellsFood Nutr. Res.5927830 doi: 10.3402/fnr.v59.27830

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TeowC.C.TruongV.-D.McFeetersR.F.ThompsonR.L.PecotaK.V.YenchoG.C.2007Antioxidant activities, phenolic and β-carotene contents of sweet potato genotypes with varying flesh coloursFood Chem.103829838

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TimberlakeC.F.HenryB.S.1988Anthocyanins as natural food colorantsProg. Clin. Biol. Res.280107121

  • XuJ.SuX.LimS.GriffinJ.CareyE.KatzB.TomichJ.SmithJ.WangW.2015Characterisation and stability of anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweetpotato P40Food Chem.1869096

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

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Contributor Notes

This work was supported in part by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and USAID.

Corresponding author. E-mail: m.andrade@cgiar.org.

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    Foliage and storage root of sweetpotato bred cultivars with orange and mostly purple flesh cultivars evaluated in Mozambique, 2011 to 2014: ‘Alisha’, ‘Anamaria’, and ‘Ivone’ orange-fleshed (top row); ‘Caelan’, ‘Bie’, and ‘Margarete’ purple-fleshed (center row); and ‘Lawrence’, ‘Victoria’, and ‘Bita’ dual-purpose.

Article References

  • CIP AVRDC and IPBGR1991Descriptors for sweetpotato. In: Z. Huamán (ed.). International Board for Plant Genetic Resources Rome Italy

  • GilbertJ.C.2005Coloring foods and beveragesFood Technol.593844

  • HotzC.LoechlC.LubowaA.TumwineJ.K.NdeeziG.MasawiA.N.BainganaR.CarriquiryA.de BrauwA.MeenakshiJ.V.GilliganD.O.2012Introduction of β-carotene-rich orange sweet potato in rural Uganda results in increased vitamin A intake among children and women and improved vitamin A status among childrenJ. Nutr.14218711880

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KubowS.IskandarM.M.SaballyK.AzadiB.SadeghiS.KumarathasanP.DasD.D.PrakashS.BurgosG.zum FeldeT.2016Biotransformation of anthocyanins from two purpled-fleshed sweetpotato accessions in a dynamic gastrointestinal systemFood Chem.192171177

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LowJ.W.ArimondM.OsmanN.CunguaraB.ZanoF.TschirleyD.2007A food-based approach introducing orange-fleshed sweet potatoes increased vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations among young children in rural MozambiqueJ. Nutr.13713201327

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NiyirebaT.N.EbongC.AgiliS.LowJ.LukuyuB.KiruiJ.NdirigweJ.UwimanaG.KankudiyeL.MutimuraM.GahakwaD.GachuiriC.K.2013Evaluation of dual purpose sweet potato [Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam] cultivars for root and fodder production in Eastern Province RwandaAgr. J.8242247

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RayR.C.PandaS.K.SwainM.R.SivakumarP.S.2011Proximate composition and sensory evaluation of anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) wineIntl. J. Food Sci. Technol.47452458

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SAS Institute Inc1997SAS/STAT user’s guide release 6.12. SAS Institute Inc. Cary NC

  • ShumbushaD.NdirigweJ.KankundiyeL.MusabyemunguA.GahawaD.NdayemeyeP.S.MwangaR.O.M.2014‘RW11-17’, ‘RW11-1860’, ‘RW11-2419’, ‘RW11-2560’, ‘RW11-2910’, and ‘RW11-4923’ sweetpotatoHortScience4913491352

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SunM.LuX.HaoL.WuT.ZhaoH.WangC.2015The influences of purple sweet potato anthocyanin on the growth characteristics of human retinal pigment epithelial cellsFood Nutr. Res.5927830 doi: 10.3402/fnr.v59.27830

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TeowC.C.TruongV.-D.McFeetersR.F.ThompsonR.L.PecotaK.V.YenchoG.C.2007Antioxidant activities, phenolic and β-carotene contents of sweet potato genotypes with varying flesh coloursFood Chem.103829838

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TimberlakeC.F.HenryB.S.1988Anthocyanins as natural food colorantsProg. Clin. Biol. Res.280107121

  • XuJ.SuX.LimS.GriffinJ.CareyE.KatzB.TomichJ.SmithJ.WangW.2015Characterisation and stability of anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweetpotato P40Food Chem.1869096

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

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