Producing carrots with optimal root grades is the most critical aspect of carrot production for maximizing profits. Desired root grades can be optimized by maintaining optimal plant population. While precision seeding helps to seed required seeding rate, obtaining optimum seed germination and uniform emergence, especially in mineral soils and under cold and dry climates, have been great challenges to carrot producers around the world. Therefore, stand establishment is critical for optimizing yield and quality in carrots. Experiments were conducted to identify suitable germination and emergence promoters (GEPs) that will promote early and uniform emergence under temperatures of 5 °C and 20 °C and under 20% FC and 40% FC combinations. GEPs, belonging to both natural and synthetic antistress, antioxidant groups of compounds, and mineral salts were used. Carrot seeds of cv. Oranza were used in this study. Seeds were preconditioned with various GEPs, then submerged into laponite RD gel that was used as a potential “artificial exosperm” for carrot seeds. Data on emergence was collected and emergence and vigor value was calculated. Under ideal conditions, that is, at the 20 °C and 40% FC combination, there was no significant difference between treated seeds and untreated control. Germination was delayed at the 5 °C and 20% FC combination. However, seeds preconditioned with GEP-PN1.5%, GEP-LU at 1 mg·L-1, GEP-CA at 10 mg·L-1, GEP-AA at 100 mg·L-1 and GEP-SD at 10 mg·L-1 all promoted emergence resulting in the highest number of seedlings emerged at 5 °C and at 20% FC. Enhanced emergence under low temperature and low moisture may perhaps be due to synthesis of specific proteins.
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