The effect of cutting length, planting depth, irrigation of cuttings, soil compaction following frost, and prior blanching on rooting of `GF677' hardwood stem cuttings stuck directly into a nursery row was studied. The results showed that cuttings cut to 30 cm lengths rooted best of all length treatments tested. Cuttings planted so that the shoot tips were level with the soil surface (0-cm-deep treatment) rooted with significantly higher percentages than did the other planting depths. Irrigation, applied immediately after planting cuttings into a nursery row, had a negative effect on rooting. Cuttings that were loosened from the soil as a result of frost heaving rooted better when pushed back into the soil than did the controls. Finally, cuttings made from shoots that were treated by wrapping the base in red or black tape rooted better than the unwrapped controls.
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