Anthers of six apple [Malus ×domestica (L.) Borkh.], three Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia N.) and two European pear (Pyrus communis L.) scion cultivars were cultured. Callus formation occurred from anthers of all cultivars and androgenic embryogenesis was observed from all except P. pyrifolia `Kosui' and P. communis `La France'. Regeneration of adventitious shoots from anther-derived embryos was shown from all apple cultivars and P. pyrifolia `Shinko'. Many of these shoots did not grow or died on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium (1962) with 4.4 μm BA and 0.5 μm IBA, whereas several shoots of apple `Starking Delicious' grew to plantlets. Chromosome counts of shoot apical cells of four clones derived from embryos of `Starking Delicious' showed that three clones were diploids and one clone comprised diploid and haploid shoots, suggesting that at least one clone originated from a microspore. Chemical names used: 3-indolyl-butyric acid (IBA); N6-benzyladenine (BA).
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