The S-locus genes in the pistil (S-RNases) were cloned from the apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivar Akane (S-genotype SdSh from pollination analysis). The Sd- and Sh-RNase corresponded to S7- and S24-RNase, which have been cloned from `Idared' and `Braeburn', respectively. Sh-RNase was very similar to Sf- and Sg-RNases at the deduced amino acid-sequence levels (93%). We developed an S-allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis method for distinguishing the Sh from Sf and Sg, and the Sh-alleles of `Akane', `Touhoku 2', `Vista Bella', and `Worcester Pearmain' were identified. We also identified the S-allele genotypes of 16 apple cultivars.
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