Relationship between Nitrogen Fertilization and Bacterial Canker in `French' Prune

in HortScience

Bacterial canker (BC), caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall, is a serious disease of stone fruits that occurs most commonly in young orchards. Many factors can predispose or increase the risk that trees develop BC such as sandy or compacted soils, low soil pH, inadequate tree nutrition, frost or cold injury, genetic susceptibility, and presence of ring nematode, Criconemella spp. However, questions still remain about how these factors influence disease incidence in `French' prune, Prunus domestica L. In 1991, we established a 3.64-ha plot in Winters, Calif., to determine the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation on growth responses and yield of young prune trees. N was applied through a surface drip system at 0, 0.11, 0.23, and 0.45 kg actual N/tree per year as UN32 urea (Unocal, Sacramento Calif.) with 1/10th of the total amount delivered per application every other week from May through September starting in 1992. Two other treatments were also included: 0.064 kg N/tree per year through surface drip if % leaf N dropped below 2.3%, and 0.23 kg N/tree/year delivered in small amounts every irrigation via an automated buried drip system. Symptoms of BC began appearing primarily in the 0- and 0.064-N treatments in 1993. During 1995 and 1996, we demonstrated highly significant relationships between low N status measured in leaves and increased incidence of BC. Furthermore, we determined levels of N application via drip irrigation, which resulted in good yields, vigorous growth, and lack of BC in our test plots, but also minimized N use and potential for nitrate leaching into groundwater. These and additional results will be presented.

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