Four chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora) spontaneous and radiation-induced sports from the cultivar `Charm' and phenotypically differing only in flower color were individually characterized using arbitrary signatures from amplification profiles (ASAP). ASAP analysis is based on a two-step arbitrary primer amplification procedure that produces “fi ngerprints of fingerprints.” In the first step, `Charm', `Dark Charm', `Dark Bronze Charm', `Salmon Charm', and `Coral Charm' were fingerprinted by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) with standard octamer arbitrary primers. Diluted products from three monomorphic fingerprints for each cultivar were subsequently reamplified using four minihairpin decamer primers. Each of the 12 ASAP profiles revealed polymorphic loci that were used to uniquely identify cultivars and estimate genetic relationships. The ASAP technique permits identification of previously genetically indistinguishable plant material and should facilitate marker assisted breeding and protection of ownership rights.
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