Growth of Plant Tissue Cultures in Ultra-high Levels of Carbon Dioxide under Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Conditions

in HortScience

A comparative study was undertaken to determine the influence of lighting, carbohydrate concentrations and ultra-high levels of CO2, i.e., >10,000 ppm, on sterile culture growth. Past CO2-sterile studies have confirmed that elevation of CO2 to as high as 1000 ppm resulted in beneficial growth. Within special constructed chambers, tissue cultures were given a variety of CO2 levels for 12–16 hours/day using artificial lighting and natural sunlight. Several different plants (lettuce, beans, pine) and plant culture types were grown in CO2-enriched environments, ranging from 350 to 50,000 ppm. In almost all cases, plant tissue cultures not only tolerated but exhibited enhanced growth using ultra-high levels of CO2. For example, lettuce cultures were found to grow 2 to 4 times faster under ultra-high CO2. levels than under normal atmospheric CO2 levels, i.e., 350 ppm. Natural sunlight was found to be suitable for sterile culture growth. Modes of administration of CO2 in vitro and gas permeability of various culture vessels are presented.

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