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Citrus microcarpa is a popular nutritious fruit that is widely cultivated in China. In recent years, many compounds with significant pharmacological activities have been isolated successfully from the pericarp of C. microcarpa. However, to date, there are no reports on the activity of C. microcarpa pericarp against root-knot nematodes. This study used the ethanolic extract from the pericarp of Hainan C. microcarpa and the impregnation method to determine its activity on J2 Meloidogyne enterolobii specimens and on single-egg hatching. The results showed that when J2 individuals were treated with 50 mg⋅mL–1 of the extract, the lethal concentration 50 values after 24 and 48 hours were 17.124 and 8.858 mg⋅mL–1, respectively. The mortality rate of nematodes after 48 hours of treatment was 100%, and the inhibition rate of single-egg hatching after 24 hours was 89.29%. The ethanolic extract of C. microcarpa peels showed high inhibitory and lethal activity against the M. enterolobii. The analysis of the chemical composition of the extract revealed 28 substances with insecticidal and antibacterial effects, including lignans, flavonoids, fatty acids, organic acids, terpenoids, and imidazole. The formulas of the chemical structures and pharmacological effects of these potential insecticidal and antibacterial substances were elucidated to provide a scientific basis and a theoretical reference for the use of C. microcarpa pericarps as a raw material for the development of new, natural plant nematicides.

Open Access

Although there is increasing consumer interest in newer foods such as green seeds, green shell bean production in Virginia is nonexistent. We conducted replicated field studies during 2022–23 to characterize production potential of green shell beans and green seeds from black and navy beans. Average green pod and green seed yields were 10,121 and 5186 kg·ha−1, respectively, whereas average seed number per pod was 3.6. As a group, black beans had a higher shelling percent than navy beans, with an average shelling percent of 54%. Green seeds from black and navy bean contained 26% protein, 82 mg·kg−1 Fe, and 38 mg·kg−1 Zn in addition to appreciable concentrations of other nutrients. Our results indicated that black and navy beans have potential as alternative crops to supply green seeds.

Open Access

A large group of horticulture species are propagated vegetatively through shoot-tip cuttings harvested from stock plants and planted to form adventitious roots. Adventitious rooting leads to establishing a carbohydrate sink in the region of root regeneration that is highly dependent on energy and carbon skeletons. We hypothesized that the timing of exogenous applications of cytokinin (CK) and boron (B)–molybdenum (Mo)-based products during adventitious root development can affect the flow of sugars from leaves to sinks, carbon allocation to the adventitious roots, and the quality of rooted cuttings. During this project, we aimed to determine if the application time of a CK/B-Mo-based product during the adventitious root development of unrooted cuttings would impact the source-to-sink relationship and, hence, affect plug growth and quality. A sink-strengthening commercial product based on cytokinin, B, and Mo was applied at four plug development stages plus a negative control as follows: T1, plants without product (control); T2, sticking stage (starting 24 hours after the sticking); T3, callus formation stage; T4, root development stage; and T5, toning stage. The root and shoot lengths and dry matter, number of leaves, leaf chlorophyll content, root-to-shoot ratio (based on dry matter), and nonstructural carbohydrate contents were measured. The timing of the application of the product impacted the root development, quality of the cuttings, and nonstructural carbohydrate content. Product application during the adventitious root dedifferentiation and induction phases (T2) resulted in the shortest root and shoot lengths, lowest dry matter accumulation, lowest nonstructural carbohydrate contents, and some phytotoxicity. Application during the initiation phase (T3) resulted in greater root length, total dry matter, and total soluble sugar contents compared with the control. Application during the expression phase (T4) resulted in the largest root length and mass and the highest sucrose contents. Applying the product when the roots had grown and reached all the edges of the growing media (T5) did not have any benefits compared with the control. This study provides new insights into the application timing of exogenous CKs, B, and Mo to generate a well-toned rooted coleus cutting and potential explanations in relation to nonstructural carbohydrate metabolism.

Open Access
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Established in 1903, the American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS) is a leading professional organization that serves a diverse horticultural community. With influence spanning both national and global domains, ASHS makes substantial contributions to various branches of horticulture. In 1985, ASHS introduced the annual Fruit Publication Award to honor exceptional research articles related to fruit. Reflecting on these awarded articles, especially in light of ASHS’s 120-year history, not only serves as a congratulatory gesture to the recipients but also provides insight into the evolutionary progression of fruit science.

Open Access

The production of Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in hydroponic systems has increased in popularity since the early 2000s, along with the use of high-wire trellising systems. Some farmers claim the high-wire trellising systems, also known as drop-and-lean trellising, result in a more consistent weekly yield than umbrella or modified-umbrella systems. This study compared the high-wire and modified-umbrella trellising systems both using a 7 ft top wire and 4 plants/m2 plant density. The fruit weight and number of fruit per plant were significantly greater using the modified-umbrella trellising system, with the number of fruit being about twice as high as the high-wire trellising system. Consistency of yields was also measured for both systems and found to peak at ∼5 to 7 weeks after the start of harvest using both trellising systems. However, peak yields using the modified-umbrella trellising system followed a quadratic curve, implying that the high-wire trellising system results in more consistent yields. Differences in yield and harvest consistency were likely related to light penetration of the plant canopy. Growers using low-profile greenhouses can expect lower yields and more consistent harvests using the high-wire trellising system. Yields may be improved using a higher plant density. Alternatively, succession planting on a 5- to 7-week interval can improve harvest consistency using a modified-umbrella trellising system.

Open Access

With an increase in social awareness of environmental degradation and the need to conserve resources while reducing greenhouse gas emissions, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the environmental standards of the industries from which they purchase products. This has motivated industries to restructure their business model to one that is more environmentally sustainable. Research of consumers’ floral purchasing habits based on geographic regions found that these habits varied depending on the region where they lived. The main purpose of this study was to investigate US consumers’ perceptions and willingness to pay as they relate to retail floral providers’ environmentally sustainable practices based on the geographical region where the consumer lives within the United States. The results indicated differences in the way respondents answered questions based on the geographical region where they live. However, regardless of the US region where the respondents live, from the list of sustainable attributes covered in this study, respondents indicated the use of locally sourced flowers and composting of floral waste as the two sustainable attributes with the most perceived value to consumers. The findings of this study indicate that floral providers that have incorporated any type of sustainable attribute into their businesses should be promoting this to the public. Floral providers located in the West and Northeast regions of the United States should especially consider emphasizing sustainable attributes within their business because consumers in these regions indicated that they were most willing to pay premiums for sustainable practices. Additionally, floral providers in the West should consider sourcing and promoting the use of fair-trade materials to their customers.

Open Access