Browse

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 41,686 items

Vaccinium meridionale (section Pyxothamnus), a tetraploid species native to higher altitude locations in Jamaica, Colombia, and Venezuela, is of interest to Vaccinium breeders for its profuse, concentrated springtime flowering and monopodial plant structure, both of which may be useful in breeding for mechanical harvest. In this study, tetraploid V. meridionale was hybridized successfully as a male with 4x V. macrocarpon (section Oxycoccos, American cranberry). The first-generation hybrids with 4x cranberry were intermediate in morphology and notably vigorous. The 4x F1 hybrids displayed a vining plant structure, increased flower bud numbers, and white campanulate flowers. The F1 hybrids displayed modest fertility as females upon selfing and backcrossing to 4x V. macrocarpon. Evaluations of male fertility found good pollen production and a range of pollen quality ranging from very good to poor. Hybrids functioned well as males in crosses that used US 1930, a V. meridionale–V. vitis-idaea hybrid as the female. The fertility suggests that these hybrids, despite being derived from intersectional crosses, might be used conventionally in cranberry breeding without significant difficulty.

Open access cc by nc nd

Pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana) is a greenhouse crop commonly grown under black shade net; it often requires the use of chemical plant growth regulators to maintain a compact growth habit. Nonchemical efforts to alter plant morphology, such as height, would provide a more sustainable solution than chemical application. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the effects of different colors of shade nets on controlling growth and flowering of pansy. In Expt. 1, ‘Clear Yellow’, ‘Buttered Popcorn’, and ‘Deep Orange’ pansy plugs were placed under 30% blue or black shade net or, as a control group, where grown with no shade net. In Expt. 2, the same three cultivars of pansy were grown under 50% black, red, pearl, or aluminized shade net. Data were collected on plant height, plant width, flower number, plant survival, soil plant analysis development chlorophyll meter (SPAD) readings, and light quality. In Expt. 1, the blue shade net reduced height to flower and height to leaves, but also decreased flower number and plant survival as compared with black shade net. All plants under no shade died. In Expt. 2, SPAD, an indicator of plant quality by estimating leaf greenness, was found to be lower under black shade net, whereas pearl shade net led to a decrease in plant height and no effect on the number of flowers. Light quality, including red-to-far-red ratio, varied among shade treatments, whereas light intensity was reduced under aluminized, black (50%), and red shade nets compared with other shade treatments. Blue and pearl shade nets both reduced plant height, but blue shade net also reduced plant survival and flowering.

Open access cc by nc nd

Chlorine is a disinfectant commonly used to treat water. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set a standard limit of up to 4 mg·L−1 chlorine for drinking water. The objective of this project was to identify chlorine phytotoxicity thresholds on ‘Rex’ lettuce (Lactuca sativa) when the water source contained chlorine levels within the USEPA standard limits. The nutrient solution to grow lettuce was prepared with reverse osmosis–treated water treated with 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 4 mg·L−1 chlorine and then fertilizers were added. Lettuce plants were grown in a deep-water culture hydroponic system. Visual toxicity symptoms on leaves, relative leaf greenness, and fresh and dry biomass were measured. Our results indicate that irrigation water sources with ≥1 mg·L−1 chlorine used to prepare nutrient solutions can cause phytotoxicity in lettuce plants in just 3 days. Compared with the untreated control, lettuce shoot biomass was lower by 30%, 55%, 66%, 83%, and 92% at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 4 mg·L−1 of chlorine, respectively. Water sources with ≥ 1 mg·L−1 chlorine can cause significant marketable yield reduction in lettuce grown in deep-water culture.

Open access cc by nc nd

For many growers, established and newcomers, the determination of the optimal light spectrum for growing crops can be challenging and highly dependent on crop species and variety. With the increased popularity of LED lighting, the capability to fine-tune a light spectrum has never been greater. Here, we break down the fundamental roles of the major spectral regions (ultraviolet, blue, green, red, and far-red) and explain the effect on plant growth, yield, and crop quality (i.e., greenness, coloration, flavor) when applied in isolation or combination. The first part of this review examines plant responses to light stimuli and the potential benefits for growers. We also discuss how LED lighting can be used to manipulate plant growth and development to improve crop productivity and/or value. We suggest some basic LED light “recipes” that could be used by growers to deliver specific growth effects and provide an easy-to-use visual reference guide. The second part of this review explores the impact of light treatments on crop productivity. Increased productivity is weighed against the ongoing costs associated with various light treatments, modeled in the context of UK electricity pricing.

Open access cc by nc nd

Until recently, most clonal cannabis (Cannabis sativa) has been propagated using fluorescent lights. Transitioning to light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may be a viable alternative to fluorescent lighting, enabling cultivators to provide specific spectrum treatments to enhance rooting while also saving energy. Vegetative stem cuttings of ‘Gelato-27’, ‘Grace’, and ‘Meridian’ were rooted for 15 days under various combinations of blue (B), red (R), ultraviolet-A (UVA) LEDs, phosphor-converted white (W) LEDs, and a fluorescent (F) control treatment, each with a canopy-level photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 200 µmol·m−2·s−1 and 16-hour photoperiod. The photon flux ratios of blue (B; 400–500 nm) and red (R; 600–700 nm) narrowband LED treatment combinations were (1) BR, fixed spectrum of B15:R85; (2) B, B75:R25 on day 0–2 followed by B15:R85 on day 2–14; (3) B+UVA, B75:R25 on day 0–2 followed by B15:R85 on day 2–14 plus 15 µmol·m−2·s−1 of UVA on day 7–14; (4) B50, B15:R85 on day 0–7 followed by B50:R50 on day 7–14. The W and F treatments both had static spectra. After the propagation period (i.e., plug stage), a portion of the cuttings under each treatment × cultivar combination were destructively harvested and the remainder were transplanted and grown vegetatively for an additional 21 days (i.e., transplant stage) under a PPFD of ≈275 µmol·m−2·s−1 from ceramic metal halide fixtures and then destructively harvested. Although there were no spectrum treatment effects on the percentage of cuttings that rooted, root index values were higher in cuttings grown under B+UVA vs. F. Further, relative root dry weights of plugs from the B, B+UVA, B50, and F treatments were higher than the W treatment. At the end of the plug stage, there were no spectrum treatment effects on the chlorophyll content index, cuttings grown under the B treatment had thicker stems compared with BR and W treatments, and cuttings grown under the F treatment exhibited the lowest percentage of new aboveground growth. None of the aforementioned spectrum treatment effects from the propagation stage persisted post-transplant. The use of LEDs is a promising, energy-efficient alternative to fluorescent lighting for cannabis propagation and B-enhanced spectrum treatments appear to enhance the rooting performance of clonal cannabis cuttings.

Open access cc by nc nd

‘Shiranui’ is a mandarin (Citrus reticulata var. austera) that is highly treasured for its unique and delicious flavor, and obtains premium prices in the marketplace. Although flavorful, ‘Shiranui’ tends to develop off-flavor during storage. In this study we examined the use of different storage wax (SW) and pack wax (PW) combinations to determine whether flavor in ‘Shiranui’ can be improved after storage by adjusting wax coating protocols. In the initial test, either SW or no wax was applied after harvest, and each was followed by an application of SW or one of two types of PW after 1 day, 3 weeks, or 7 weeks of storage and then held 1 week at either 7 or 20 °C. Results indicate that the initial wax was not an important factor but the use of SW instead of either type of PW as the final coating led to greater internal oxygen levels in the fruit and less off-flavor formation. The lessening of off-flavor by SW was significant only after 20 °C of storage, when off-flavor was greatest. Greater weight loss accompanied the use of SW as the final coating. In a second test, SW with greater solids concentrations (5%, 10%, and 15%) were evaluated to attempt to reduce weight loss, but this led to greater development of off-flavor and loss in acceptability than observed when using SW with 1% solids in test 1. ‘Shiranui’ is prone to developing off-flavor in storage, but this may be mitigated, at least in part, by using SW as the final wax rather than PW.

Open access cc by nc nd