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Open access

Kirsten L. Lloyd, Donald D. Davis, Richard P. Marini, and Dennis R. Decoteau

Effects of nighttime (2000 to 0700 hr) O3 on the pod mass of sensitive (S156) and resistant (R123) snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes were assessed using continuous stirred tank reactors located within a greenhouse. Two concentration-response relationship trials were designed to evaluate yield response to nighttime O3 exposure (10 to 265 ppb) in combination with daytime exposure at background levels (44 and 62 ppb). Three replicated trials tested the impact of nighttime O3 treatment at means of 145, 144, and 145 ppb on yields. In addition, stomatal conductance (g S) measurements documented diurnal variations and assessed the effects of genotype and leaf age. During the concentration-response experiments, pod mass had a significant linear relationship with the nighttime O3 concentration across genotypes. Yield losses of 15% and 50% occurred at nighttime exposure levels of ≈45 and 145 ppb, respectively, for S156, whereas R123 yields decreased by 15% at ≈150 ppb. At low nighttime O3 levels of ≈100 ppb, R123 yields initially increased up to 116% of the treatment that received no added nighttime O3, suggesting a potential hormesis effect for R123, but not for S156. Results from replicated trials revealed significant yield losses in both genotypes following combined day and night exposure, whereas night-only exposure caused significant decreases only for S156. The g S rates ranged from less than 100 mmol·m−2·s−1 in the evening to midday levels more than 1000 mmol·m−2·s−1. At sunrise and sunset, S156 had significantly higher g S rates than R123, suggesting a greater potential O3 flux into leaves. Across genotypes, younger rapidly growing leaves had higher g S rates than mature fully expanded leaves when evaluated at four different times during the day. Although these were long-term trials, g S measurements and observations of foliar injury development suggest that acute injury, occurring at approximately the time of sunrise, also may have contributed to yield losses. To our knowledge, these are the first results to confirm that the relative O3 sensitivity of the S156/R123 genotypes is valid for nighttime exposure.

Open access

Sandra B. Wilson, Carlee Steppe, Zhanao Deng, Keri Druffel, Gary W. Knox, and Edzard van Santen

Trailing lantana [Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq.] is a low-growing, woody ornamental valued for its heat and drought tolerance and repeat blooming of purple or white flowers throughout much of the year. In 2011, trailing lantana was predicted to have high invasion risk by the UF-IFAS’s assessment of non-native plants in Florida, and therefore it was no longer recommended for use. All cultivars fall under this designation unless proven otherwise. Eight trailing lantana varieties were obtained from wholesale growers or naturalized populations found in Texas and Australia. Plants were propagated vegetatively, finished in 4-inch pots, and planted in field trials located in central (Balm) and northern (Citra) Florida. Throughout the 24-week study from June to November, mean plant quality was between 4.4 and 4.7 (on a 1 to 5 scale) for U.S. varieties and 3.9 for the Australian form. Mean flowering was between 4.1 and 4.5 (on a 1 to 5 scale) for U.S. trailing lantana varieties and 3.5 for Australian trailing lantana. Australian trailing lantana differed from other U.S. varieties tested, being smaller in size, more sensitive to cold, and having a high female fertility index (producing abundant fruit with viable seed per peduncle). Our findings indicate that some U.S. varieties of trailing lantana are unlikely to present an ecological threat and merit consideration for production and use.

Open access

Tyler C. Hoskins, Jason D. Lattier, and Ryan N. Contreras

Common lilac is an important flowering shrub that accounts for ≈$20 million of sales in the U.S. nursery industry. Cultivar improvement in common lilac has been ongoing for centuries, yet little research has focused on shortening the multiple-year juvenility period for lilacs and the subsequent time required between breeding cycles. The practice of direct-sowing of immature “green” seed has been shown to reduce juvenility in some woody plants, but it has not been reported for common lilac. This study investigated the effects of seed maturity [weeks after pollination (WAP)], pregermination seed treatment (direct-sown vs. cold-stratified), and postgermination seedling chilling on the germination percentage, subsequent plant growth, and time to flower on lilac seedlings. All seedlings were derived from the female parent ‘Ludwig Spaeth’ and the male parent ‘Angel White’. Seeds harvested at 15 and 20 WAP resulted in 58% (sd ± 9.9%) and 80% (sd ± 9.0%) germination, respectively, which were similar to that of dry seed collected at 20 WAP with stratification (62% ± 4.2%). Seedlings from the green seed collected at 15 and 20 WAP were also approximately three-times taller than those of dry seed groups DS1, DS2, and DS3 after the first growing season. Over the next two growing seasons, there were no differences in seedling height across all treatments. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the fourth season and without differences among treatments. These results indicate that the collection and direct sowing of immature, green seed can be used to successfully grow lilac seedlings, but that they do not reduce the juvenility period. However, this method can provide more vegetative growth in year one to observe early vegetative traits such as leaf color, and it can provide more material for DNA extraction to support molecular research.

Open access

Ibukun T. Ayankojo, Kelly T. Morgan, Davie M. Kadyampakeni, and Guodong D. Liu

Effective nutrient and irrigation management practices are critical for optimum growth and yield in open-field fresh-market tomato production. Although nutrient and irrigation management practices have been well-studied for tomato production in Florida, more studies of the current highly efficient production systems would be considered essential. Therefore, a two-season (Fall 2016 and Spring 2017) study was conducted in Immokalee, FL, to evaluate the effects of the nitrogen (N) rates under different irrigation regimes and to determine the optimum N requirement for open-field fresh-market tomato production. To evaluate productivity, the study investigated the effects of N rates and irrigation regimes on plant and root growth, yield, and production efficiency of fresh-market tomato. The study demonstrated that deficit irrigation (DI) targeting 66% daily evapotranspiration (ET) replacement significantly increased tomato root growth compared with full irrigation (FI) at 100% ET. Similarly, DI application increased tomato growth early in the season compared with FI. Therefore, irrigation applications may be adjusted downward from FI, especially early during a wet season, thereby potentially improving irrigation water use efficiency (iWUE) and reducing leaching potential of Florida sandy soils. However, total marketable yield significantly increased under FI compared with DI. This suggests that although DI may increase early plant growth, the application of DI throughout the season may result in yield reduction. Although N application rates had no significant effects on biomass production, tomato marketable yield with an application rate of 134 kg·ha−1 N was significantly lower compared with other N application rates (179, 224, and 269 kg·ha−1). It was also observed that there were no significant yield benefits with N application rates higher than 179 kg·ha−1. During the fall, iWUE was higher under DI (33.57 kg·m−3) than under FI (25.57 kg·m−3); however, iWUE was similar for both irrigation treatments during spring (FI = 14.04 kg·m−3; DI = 15.29 kg·m−3). The N recovery (REC-N) rate was highest with 134 kg·ha−1 N; however, REC-N was similar with 179, 224, and 269 kg·ha−1 N rates during both fall and spring. Therefore, these study results could suggest that DI could be beneficial to tomato production only when applied during early growth stages, but not throughout the growing season. Both yield and efficiency results indicated that the optimum N requirement for open-field fresh-market tomato production in Florida may not exceed 179 kg·ha−1 N.

Open access

David C. Zlesak, Darcy Ballantyne, Matthew Holen, Andrea Clark, Stan C. Hokanson, Kristen Smith, Jason D. Zurn, Nahla V. Bassil, and James M. Bradeen

The fungal pathogen, Diplocarpon rosae, infects only roses (Rosa spp.) and leads to rose black spot disease. Rose black spot is the most problematic disease of outdoor-grown roses worldwide due to the potential for rapid leaf chlorosis and defoliation. Eleven races of the pathogen were previously characterized from isolates collected in North America and Europe. Isolates of D. rosae obtained from infected leaves of the roses Brite EyesTM (‘RADbrite’; isolate BEP; collected in West Grove, PA) and Oso Easy® Paprika (‘CHEwmaytime’; isolate PAP; collected in Minneapolis, MN) proved to have unique infection patterns using the established host differential with the addition of Lemon FizzTM (‘KORlem’). The new races are designated race 12 (BEP) and race 13 (PAP), respectively, and Lemon FizzTM should be included in the updated host differential because it distinguishes races 7 and 12. Additionally, inconsistent infections and limited sporulation were found in the host differential Knock Out® (‘RADrazz’) for races 7 and 12. Expanding the collection of D. rosae races supports ongoing research efforts, including host resistance gene discovery and breeding new rose cultivars with increased and potentially durable resistance.

Open access

Priyanka Sharad Mahangade, Indra Mani, Randolph Beaudry, Norbert Müller, and Sangeeta Chopra

Some storages have limited control over their internal environment and undergo daily and seasonal fluctuations in both temperature and humidity, which cause variation in the metabolic activity of stored products. As a result, it is difficult to assess and compare the performance of these imperfect storages using measures of environmental control. We propose using measures of plant senescence as a proxy for estimating storage performance of these “imperfect” storages based on the premise that physiological processes integrate changes of temperature and/or humidity in a predictable, mathematically describable manner. We evaluated amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) as a model plant for evaluating imperfect storages using a red-leaf cultivar Pusa lal chaulai and a green-leaf cultivar Pusa kiran. Amaranth is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is a highly nutritious and versatile food. Cumulative respiration, a measure of integrated metabolic activity, was regressed against leaf abscission, chlorophyll loss, and leaf yellowing of amaranth stems for four storages having different, variable, temperature profiles. Storages included 1) an evaporatively cooled (EC) structure; 2) a solar-refrigerated and evaporatively cooled (SREC) structure; 3) an uncooled laboratory (UL); and 4) a household refrigerator (REF). We found that the rate of abscission, chlorophyll loss, and leaf yellowing differed markedly for the four storages; however, these measures of senescence were linearly related to estimates of cumulative respiration. The ease of measuring leaf abscission, chlorophyll loss, and leaf yellowing permits data collection even with minimal resources. We propose that amaranth would make an effective model plant for comparing the performance of storages differing dramatically in temperature control. A 10% leaf abscission in amaranth is proposed as a target for comparing storages.

Open access

Zhenyu Huang, Fei Shen, Lehan Xia, Long Chen, Zexuan Cui, and Yuling Chen

Open access

Nebahat Sari, Emily Silverman, Danny Reiland, and Todd C. Wehner

Cucurbit plants usually are sensitive to chilling and easily damaged. Although bottle gourds, which are members of the Cucurbitaceae family, are considered as fresh vegetables in some Asian countries, their main use in recent years is to be used as rootstocks in grafted watermelon cultivation. We tested 163 bottle gourd accessions of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebank for cold tolerance in the early seedling stage. The experiment was conducted using controlled environment chambers with 3 chilling durations (36, 48, and 60 hours) at 4 °C. Chilling damage was rated 0 to 9 (0 = no damage, 1 to 2 = trace of damage, 3 to 4 = slight damage, 5 to 6 = moderate damage, 7 to 8 = advanced damage, 9 = plant totally dead). We rated damage separately for the cotyledons, true leaf, and growing point. Cold damage was higher at a chilling duration of 60 hours, and decreased at 48 and 36 hours. Most tolerant cultigens were PI 491272, PI 491280, PI 491281, PI 491286, and PI 491326. Most susceptible were PI 381845, PI 381846, PI 534556, PI 636137, and PI 668365.

Open access

Devin L. Radosevich, Raymond A. Cloyd, and Nathan J. Herrick

The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a major insect pest of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops. Western flower thrips causes direct and indirect damage by feeding on plant leaves, flowers, and fruits, and by transmitting viruses that can result in greenhouse producers experiencing substantial economic losses. Consequently, insecticides are used to suppress western flower thrips populations. However, issues associated with applying insecticides may affect the suppression of western flower thrips populations. Therefore, experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to determine the effects of the spray volume applied and application frequency on insecticide efficacy against western flower thrips adults located in transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii, cut flowers. Four spray volumes (5.0, 10.0, 12.5, and 25.0 mL), two application frequencies (one or two spray applications), and three insecticides [spinosad (Conserve), chlorfenapyr (Pylon), and flonicamid (Aria)], each with a different mode of action, were tested. The insecticide treatments had the greatest effects on the mean percent mortality of western flower thrips adults regardless of spray volume or application frequency. However, in Expt. 3, the 5.0- and 10.0-mL spray volumes resulted in a higher mean percent mortality of western flower thrips adults than the 2.5-mL spray volume. Spinosad and chlorfenapyr resulted in a mean percent mortality of more than 72% for western flower thrips adults, whereas flonicamid resulted in mean percent mortality between 40% and 91%. Our study demonstrates that certain insecticides are more effective against western flower thrips adults located in transvaal daisy flowers than others, which will help greenhouse producers effectively manage western flower thrips populations.