Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. (C. tinctoria) is used in composite tea material and has important medicinal functions. Soil salinization affects the growth and development of C. tinctoria in Xinjiang (China). Here, we discussed the changes in photosynthesis and physiological characteristics of C. tinctoria seedlings treated with different concentrations of NaCl [0 (CK), 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mmol·L−1] for 12, 24, and 72 hours. The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g S), transpiration rate (Tr), and stomatal inhibition rate (Ls) decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of NaCl. Salt stress promoted the accumulation of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), soluble sugar, soluble protein, and free proline (Pro). A highly significant positive correlation was found between Ls and Fv/Fm; Ls and Fv/Fo; soluble sugar and CAT; soluble sugar and soluble protein. C. tinctoria was most sensitive to the concentrations of 150 to 250 mmol·L−1 NaCl, and its salt stress tolerance was increased by reducing photosynthetic fluorescence parameters, improving the antioxidant enzyme system, and regulating osmotic substances.
Hong Jiang, Zhiyuan Li, Xiumei Jiang, and Yong Qin
Derek J. Plotkowski and John A. Cline
Insufficient biologically available nitrogen (N) for yeast is a persistent issue facing cidermakers, whose apple juice base usually does not provide adequate nutrition for a complete fermentation. Cidermakers often supplement their juice with additional yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) in the cellar to aid fermentation. The development of biologically available N in apple juice is not well understood. In this study, juice samples from ‘Crimson Crisp®’ apples were taken at several sampling dates in the 2016, 2017, and 2018 growing seasons and analyzed for YAN using formol titration and high-performance liquid chromatography. It was observed that while the total YAN concentration in these apples drops from the period shortly after fruit set to the end of summer, YAN remains stable from several weeks before harvest until the date of harvest. The total YAN did not change after a 6-week postharvest storage period. By contrast, the individual amino acid components of YAN do change during this period. This experiment shows that foliar urea sprays in ‘Crimson Crisp®’ produce an increase in organic N in the juice, mostly in the form of asparagine. Increased organic N impacts yeast growth and sensory characteristics of cider and may be seen as desirable by cider producers.
Daniel Oscar Pereira Soares, Karla Gabrielle Dutra Pinto, Laís Alves da Gama, Carla Coelho Ferreira, Prasanta C. Bhowmik, and Sônia Maria Figueiredo Albertino
Cassava production in Amazonas state deserves to be highlighted due to its great historical, social, and economic importance. Weed competition severely constrains cassava production in Amazonas. The use of cover crops is safe and very efficient at eliminating weeds while keeping the soil covered. The objective of this study was to evaluate physical properties of soil and glyphosate residues in storage roots as a function of the weed management in cassava. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and five repetitions. The treatments were biological control with two species of cover plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis and Mucuna pruriens), chemical control, mechanical control, and treatment with no weed control. The cover crops characteristics evaluated were dry weight, the percentage of cover, and rate of decomposition of plant residues. In the soil, the bulk density and total porosity were determined. The contamination of the storage roots was evaluated based on the analysis of glyphosate residue. Brachiaria ruziziensis presented more dry weight and higher percentage of cover compared with M. pruriens, and both cover crops showed very similar decomposition rates. The physical properties of soil were unaffected by any treatment evaluated. There was no detection of glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in any treatment evaluated. Chemical control with glyphosate is not able to contaminate cassava storage roots.
Neil O. Anderson, Alan G. Smith, Andrzej K. Noyszewski, Emi Ito, Diana Dalbotten, and Holly Pellerin
The issue of native invasive species management rarely occurs and is fraught with biological, social, and economic challenges as well as posing difficulties in decision-making for land managers. The terminology for categorization of invasive species is examined in the context of their bias(es), which complicates control. An example of a newly determined native species, which is also invasive, is used as an example to navigate control and regulatory issues. Native, invasive reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) occurs throughout Minnesota and most likely the entire midwest region of central United States and Canadian provinces. The species was previously assumed to be an exotic, nonnative Eurasian import but recent molecular evidence supports its status as a native but invasive species. We address how this change to being a native but highly invasive species modifies approaches to mitigate its potential control for state, Tribal, and local authorities. The implications of these new findings will require differential shifts in land managers’ perspectives and approaches for control. Particular differences may exist for Tribal Land Managers vs. departments of natural resources and private agencies. Additionally, regulatory challenges have yet to be decided on how to legislate control for a native invasive species that had been previously assumed as exotic or foreign in origin. These opportunities to change attitudes and implement judicial control measures will serve as a template for other invasive species that are native in origin.
Jiayi Ji, Zhenglin Li, Ji Tian, Jie Zhang, Yanfen Lu, Xiaoxiao Qin, Jianjun Li, Liqiang Liu, Zhe Gao, Yujing Hu, and Yuncong Yao
Young Soon Kwon, Soon-Il Kwon, Jeong-Hee Kim, Moo Yong Park, Jong Taek Park, and Jinwook Lee
Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Priscilla Andrade Silva, and Paulo Eduardo Teodoro
To contribute to commercial classification, this work sought to evaluate correlations between fruit mass and other physical characteristics of blackberry fruit, indicating direct and indirect effects of morphology and physical characteristics on blackberry fruit mass. The variables evaluated were the total mass of the blackberry fruit along with its physical components: fruit length, greater transverse diameter, smaller transverse diameter, fruit area, fruit perimeter, and fruit volume. Results of our analyses show that an increase in fruit length, fruit perimeter, and fruit volume reflects an increase in the total mass of the blackberry fruit. Indirectly, greater values of fruit length, greater transverse diameter, and smaller transverse diameter reflect an increase in the perimeter and volume of the blackberry fruit, thus contributing to larger, more attractive fruit.
Rahmatallah Gheshm and Rebecca Nelson Brown
Saffron is well known as the most expensive spice in the world by weight. It is the dried stigmas of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus). Besides being well known as a culinary spice, saffron is also important in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and dye industries. Saffron crocus is cultivated in a wide range of environments, from the Mediterranean to the Middle East, and even to northern India’s subtropical climate. Saffron crocus is an environmentally friendly and low-input crop, making it a perfect match for low-input and organic farming, and sustainable agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of producing saffron in New England. The study was conducted from Sept. 2017 to Dec. 2019 at the University of Rhode Island. Two different corm planting densities and two winter protection methods were evaluated. In 2018, corm planting density did not affect the number of flowers per unit area or total stigma yields, but flowers from the low-density plots produced significantly (P < 0.05) heavier pistils than flowers from the high-density plots. In 2019, planting density had no effect on flower number, stigma yield, or pistil dry weight. In 2018, flower number, stigma yield, and pistil dry weight were similar to subplots that had been covered with low tunnels the previous winter and subplots that had not been covered. However, in 2019, the plants in the subplots that remained exposed during the winter produced significantly more (P < 0.05) flowers than the plants in the subplots that were in low tunnels for the winter. Saffron yields followed the same pattern, with the unprotected subplots yielding 57% more than the protected subplots (P < 0.05). These data indicate that winter protection is not beneficial for saffron crocus production in Rhode Island. The use of winter protection increases production costs and can decrease yields.
Michael J. Havey and Sunggil Kim
Hybrid-onion (Allium cepa) seed is produced using systems of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and two different CMS systems have been genetically characterized. S cytoplasm was the first source of onion CMS identified in the 1920s, followed by T cytoplasm that was described in the 1960s. Numerous studies have documented polymorphisms in the organellar DNAs differentiating S and T cytoplasms from the normal male-fertile cytoplasm of onion. There may be additional source(s) of onion CMS that have been described as “T-like” and appear to be more similar to N and T cytoplasms than S cytoplasm. In this study, onion breeding lines from commercial entities were evaluated for molecular markers distinguishing sources of onion CMS. Our results reveal that bona fide T cytoplasm is rarely used commercially to produce hybrid-onion seed, and both S cytoplasm and “T-like” cytoplasm are widely used. We propose that this “T-like” cytoplasm be labeled as “R” cytoplasm because it may have originated from population(s) of ‘Rijnsburger’ onion in the Netherlands. The results of this study also help to clarify inconsistent reports regarding nuclear male-fertility restoration for different sources of onion CMS.
Thierry E. Besançon, Baylee L. Carr, and Albert Ayeni
Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus var. sativus) is a type of sedge that is quickly becoming popular as a superfood. As demand for tigernut continues to increase, more information is needed to develop weed management strategies for the crop to maximize tuber yield and quality. However, no herbicide is currently labeled for use with tigernut. Experimental trials were conducted in 2017 and 2018 to assess crop safety and control of economically important weeds with preemergence herbicides for transplanted ‘NG3’ and ‘OG’ tigernut. Oxyfluorfen applied alone or mixed with pendimethalin provided excellent control (>85%) of smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata), and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), and it did not cause any tigernut injury, stunting, or yield reduction compared with the weed-free control. However, none of the treatments controlled hairy galinsoga (Galinsoga quadriradiata) satisfactorily 2 months after herbicide application. Bensulide alone or associated with oxyfluorfen caused 14% to 25% stunting of tigernut. Bensulide alone only provided short-term control of broadleaf weeds. Increased weed competition and tigernut phytotoxicity associated with bensulide resulted in a 39% reduction in tuber yield compared with oxyfluorfen alone. Finally, S-metolachlor caused up to 78% stunting and a 68% reduction in vegetative tigernut biomass (on average) compared with the weed-free control. Tuber yield was reduced 55% to 97% after S-metolachlor was applied at transplanting. Oxyfluorfen would provide effective weed control up to 8 weeks after treatment in fields where hairy galinsoga is not a weed of concern and fulfill the requirement of a weed-free period without affecting tuber yield of quality.