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This study explored the effects of Ustilago esculenta inoculation on physiological responses (activities of defense and antioxidant enzymes) and chitinase gene expression in male Zizania latifolia “jiaobai” (without U. esculenta infection, with no galls, but normal flowering). Male jiaobai seedlings were injected at the five-leaf stage with U. esculenta suspension, and the impact on transcription of several genes encoding enzymes was examined. Compared with controls, expression of most enzymes was significantly different at 3 or 12 hours postinjection, and most ZlChi genes were involved in the response to U. esculenta inoculation. Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that U. esculenta was present in the roots of male jiaobai inoculated with U. esculenta at the shoot tips. Paraffin sections revealed many fungal hyphae in the roots at 15 d after inoculation, but few in controls. The results provide a basis for further study of the responses of male Z. latifolia to U. esculenta infection.
The flowering control of Oncidesa Gower Ramsey ‘Honey Angel’ is important and in-demand by the industry. Therefore, an understanding of the development of inflorescence and vegetative shoot from the leaf axils on the current shoot is required. The internode of a young Oncidesa current shoot between the 0th (at the base of the pseudobulb) and 1st (immediately above the pseudobulb) nodes can enlarge to form a pseudobulb, and the axillary bud on the 0th or -1st (immediately below the 0th node) node can differentiate into an inflorescence bud. The axillary buds on the lower nodes (-2nd to -4th nodes) can remain vegetative. In this study, we investigated the growth and anatomical features of axillary buds at various stages during the growth of the current shoot. We sampled the axillary buds on the 0th to -4th nodes from the current shoots when they were 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm in length for sectioning and anatomical observations. Vegetative buds on the -2nd to -4th nodes grew faster and had more nodes than the inflorescence bud when the current shoot grew from 10 to 25 cm. However, when the current shoot elongated from 25 to 30 cm, the length and node number in the inflorescence bud on the 0th node increased and the inflorescence branch primordia were observable. The length and node number of the inflorescence bud became the same as that of the vegetative buds, which had no further growth, whereas the current shoot grew from 25 to 30 cm. The pseudobulb began to emerge from the leaf sheath (unsheathing) when the current shoot had reached 30 cm in length. Therefore, the time when the pseudobulb started to unsheathe from its subtending leaf was critical for the reproductive growth of Oncidesa Gower Ramsey ‘Honey Angel’ when growth acceleration of the inflorescence bud occurred. Evaluating the current shoot length can be a nondestructive method of estimating the developmental stage of the inflorescence bud.
In the context of intensified global climate change, Taxodium distichum has been attracting attention as an essential wetland plant. Through the literature visualization analysis software CiteSpace, the Spatial Distribution, Journal Distribution, Research Power, research status, and trends of T. distichum. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) The United States and China are the major countries for T. distichum research. The major institutions are Louisiana State University and the US Geological Survey. 2) The popular research areas mainly include growth, response, wetland, forest, climate change, adventitious root, and soil. 3) The research trends are soil and Florida (1992–98), survival (1999–2005), T. distichum (2006–12), salinity (2018–22), and sea-level rise (2020–22). These findings offer the current research status of T. distichum and could provide reference information for scholars in related fields to determine research directions and refine issues.
Developing water conservation strategies for urban landscape groundcovers grown in hot and dry summers like inland Southern California, USA, is crucial because they are one of the largest residential water users. A 2-year (2020–21) study was conducted in Riverside, CA, to assess the effect of irrigation rates on the growth of landscape groundcovers as evaluated by visual quality ratings (VR) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Relationships between VR and NDVI were also established to obtain the minimum threshold values of NDVI for each groundcover. Lastly, the groundcover water response function was developed to estimate groundcover response to irrigation rates over time. Four reference evapotranspiration (ETo)-based irrigation treatments ranging from 24% to 99% ETo and 10 landscape groundcovers were laid in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Data were collected from May to October in 2020 and 2021. The irrigation controller overirrigated the plots on average by 7.7% and 4.7% in 2020 and 2021, respectively. A significant relationship (P < 0.05, 0.35 ≤ R 2 ≤ 0.82) between NDVI and VR for each landscape groundcovers was found. On the basis of the NDVI values and VR, it was found that three landscape groundcovers, including Rhadogia spinescens, Baccharis × ‘Starn’ Thompson, Eriogonum fasciculatum ‘Warriner Lytle’ can withstand water stress and can maintain their growth and visual quality at 24% ETo irrigation. Groundcovers Ruschia lineolate nana, Rosmarinus officinalis ‘Roman Beauty’, and Eremphila glabra showed the potential to perform well with as low as 49% ETo irrigation, whereas Lantana montevidensis, Oenothera stubbei, and Lonicera japonica required 75% ETo or more.
Myrciaria dubia (caçari or camu-camu) is a species with great relevance because of its high levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The species is propagated mainly by seed, which leads to high genetic diversity. Producing plants that maintain their characteristics on a large scale at a low cost is a challenge for fruit species, especially in the Myrtaceae family. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the effects of different plant growth regulators at various concentrations for the induction of somatic embryogenesis from caçari nodal segments and leaf disk explants. Two independent experiments were performed using nodal segments and leaf disks from plants grown in the greenhouse. In the first experiment, the combined effect of auxin and cytokinin at different concentrations was evaluated: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at 0, 1, 2, and 4 mg⋅L–1; and benzylaminopurine at 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg⋅L–1). In the second experiment, the application of different plant growth regulators (benzylaminopurine, kinetin, thidiazuron, and isopentenyl adenine) and their concentrations (0, 2, 4, and 6 mg⋅L–1) were evaluated. In both experiments, the basic culture medium was woody plant medium. Callus formation via nodal segments and leaf disks occurred in the first 30 d from cultivation and proved to be responsive to induction by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and benzylaminopurine. Auxin proved to be essential for somatic embryogenesis induction in nodal segments using 1 and 4 mg⋅L–1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid alone. The results of this experiment will help advancing protocols for regeneration of somatic embryos and elucidating the physiological, molecular, and genetic mechanisms involved in the process of somatic embryogenesis for M. dubia. The development of an efficient protocol for in vitro clonal propagation of this species also lays the groundwork for further optimization of the system for genetic transformation.
Peat use in horticulture continues to be scrutinized as consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the environmental sustainability concerns associated with peat. Thus, the horticultural industry is driven to search for peat alternatives. Substrate stratification (i.e., vertical layering of unique media atop another in a singular container) has been studied in nursery substrates and has demonstrated improved resource efficiency with regard to water and fertilizer inputs. However, minimal research has evaluated using the concept of stratified substrates as an attempt to reduce peat inputs in greenhouse production. Hence, the objective of this study was to identify if stratifying costly floriculture media atop of low-cost pine bark can reduce peat use, reliance, and cost within the floriculture industry. A floriculture crop, Petunia hybrid ‘Supertunia Honey’, was grown in two distinct substrate treatments: 1) nonstratified (commercial peat-based floriculture substrate) and 2) stratified peat-based substrate layered atop aged pine bark (1:1 by volume) under two different irrigation schedules. Crop growth was evaluated, including growth indices, shoot physiological responses, and root growth measurements. Substrate hydraulic properties such as matric potential and volumetric water content were monitored over time. The results demonstrated that a petunia crop can be produced in stratified substrate systems and yield similarly sized and quality crops as traditionally grown plants. Furthermore, the stratified substrate-produced crop had improved root productivity, yet less bloom, when compared with nonstratified-grown crops.
Gulf vervain (Verbena xutha) is a herbaceous perennial native to the southern United States. The species produces attractive spike inflorescences that provide a source of food for many pollinators. Besides botanical classifications, pollen morphology and cytological traits of this species have not been documented until now. Gulf vervain was found to have 2n = 42 chromosomes, with the first report of 2C nuclear DNA content of 2.95 pg. Convex-triangular pollen grains averaged 37.18 μm in diameter, with 84% stainability after cotton blue staining to estimate pollen viability. This information brings light to the genetic makeup of gulf vervain and may aid in future breeding programs.
As one of the most important fruit tree crops, apple (Malus ×domestica), is faced with the serious impact of soil salinization. However, the underlying genetic and regulatory network remains elusive. Here, we adopted time-course RNA sequencing to decipher the genetic basis and regulatory module of apple in response to salt stress. Among a series of intense changes in genes at each time point, the critical genes in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway were highly consistent with the duration of the stress treatment. Moreover, Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) genes were identified and predicted to play important roles in the response process. We constructed coexpression modules and explored modules significantly associated with stress. SOS genes were identified in the hub genes, suggesting a critical role. Interestingly, transcription factors were also identified and predicted to cointeract with SOS genes in the hub genes of the coexpression module [e.g., HB7 (MD01G1226600), WRKY33 (MD12G1181000), and ERF106 (MD07G1248700)]. Collectively, our exploration and findings provide a reference and data resource for the study of genetic and salt regulatory networks in apple.