The wild asparagus species Asparagus acutifolius L. is widespread in Mediterranean and subtropical environments, where its spears are consumed regularly. The species is known to have ecophysiologic plasticity, however there is no literature on this subject. This work aimed at assessing the photosynthetic characteristics of this wild species of asparagus, grown under full light (FL) and partial (i.e., about 40%) light (PL) conditions, and evaluating its ecophysiologic response to drought and temperature stress. The photosynthetic response to light of spears and of new cladodes (NC; current year) and old cladodes (OC; previous year) was measured using an infrared gas analyzer coupled with a climatized cuvette chamber. Cladodes net photosynthesis at high irradiance was also measured at varying air temperatures and decreasing soil water availability. Results indicate that developing spears were photosynthetically active with no difference between FL and PL treatments. Photosynthetic rates did not differ between NCs and OCs and were greater for FL cladodes, except at low irradiance. Well-watered plants were photosynthetically active from 0 to 45 °C, with a maximum photosynthetic rate of up to 9 µmol·m–2·s–1 at 30 °C and a decrease of about 60% at 45 °C. The species also demonstrated high tolerance to drought, with positive net photosynthesis even at predawn leaf water potential values of –2.4 MPa. Showing great ecophysiologic plasticity, this wild asparagus could be an interesting species in areas were conventional crop species are not profitable economically, or as an intercrop in agroforestry systems.
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Dario Mantovani, Adolfo Rosati and Domenico Perrone
Yuanshuo Qu, Ryan M. Daddio, Patrick E. McCullough, Stacy A. Bonos and William A. Meyer
Methiozolin is a new herbicide that controls annual bluegrass (Poa annua) in turfgrasses, but the differential tolerance levels of fine fescues (Festuca sp.) has received limited investigation. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential injury from methiozolin when applied to chewings fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. fallax), strong creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. rubra), and hard fescue (Festuca brevipila). Nine different fine fescue populations (14W2 Comp, Fairmont, and Survivor chewings fescue; FT345, Miser, and Fenway strong creeping red fescue; and 14H4 Comp, Stonehenge, and Oxford hard fescue) were sprayed with methiozolin at five different rates (0.42, 0.83, 1.25, 1.67, and 2.09 lb/acre) at four different application timings [4 weeks before seeding (WBS), 2 WBS, at seeding (AS), and 2 weeks after germination (WAG)]. Untreated controls were also included for each combination. Significant reduction in germination of fine fescue was observed when methiozolin was applied before emergence for all tested application rates. Methiozolin at 1.25, 1.67, and 2.09 lb/acre applied before or at the day of seeding led to complete inhibition of germination in all fine fescue species tested. It was less injurious compared with methiozolin applied at 2 WAG, although a reduction in the percentage of green cover and biomass was observed for application rates greater or equal to 0.83 lb/acre. The hierarchical ranking of species injury from high to low is as follows: hard fescue, chewings fescue, and strong creeping red fescue. A possible solution for annual bluegrass control in fine fescue species with methiozolin is multiple postemergence applications up to a maximum rate of 0.83 lb/acre. Turf managers need to make adjustments in methiozolin application rates and timings based on fine fescue species to maximize selectivity for annual bluegrass control.
Alberto Sánchez-Estrada and Julián Cuevas
In countries new to producing ‘Manzanillo’ olive trees (Olea europaea), free cross-pollination is often insufficient to obtain high levels of fruit set. An appropriate pollination design is therefore essential to ensure a timely, abundant, and compatible pollen supply. With a view to determining whether a pollination deficit exists in a nontraditional olive area such as the northern Mexico, pollination experiments were carried out in two consecutive seasons in both a monovarietal and a multivarietal Manzanillo orchard, where Sevillano, Barouni, Picual, Pendolino, Mission, Nevadillo, and Frantoio trees were growing nearby. The pollination treatments were self-, open, and cross-pollination with ‘Barouni’ and ‘Sevillano’ pollen, the latter only in the multivarietal orchard. The results confirmed the full self-incompatible condition of ‘Manzanillo’. Open-pollination did not improve fruit set in the monovarietal orchard, but it did so significantly in the multivarietal plot, where fruit set levels under open-pollination matched those of cross-pollination. Lower pollen adhesion, as well as occasional decreased germination, and reduced and delayed pollen tube growth were observed under self-pollination, highlighting self-incompatibility reactions. The reduction in fertilization rates led to low fruit set under self-pollination. Positive effects of open- and cross-pollination treatments were also noted on fruit weight (despite higher crop loads) and pulp-to-pit ratios. A strategic plantation design, including appropriate pollinizers in the right number and position, is therefore suggested for increasing ‘Manzanillo’ fruit quality and yield in Mexico. Both ‘Barouni’ and ‘Sevillano’ served as efficient pollinizers for ‘Manzanillo’, although we recommend ‘Barouni’ as a more efficient because the bloom periods of them matched that of ‘Manzanillo’
Simona Proietti, Stefano Moscatello, Fiorella Villani, Federica Mecucci, Robert P. Walker, Franco Famiani and Alberto Battistelli
Key nutritional characteristics of the fruit flesh of 41 sour cherries growing in the region of Umbria in central Italy have been determined. Fruit size, flesh dry matter content, nonstructural carbohydrates, organic acids, and anthocyanins were the analyzed parameters. Both the growing environment and genotype were statistically significant for most of the characteristics. Morello sour cherries were characterized by a large amount of sorbitol (up to 44.2 mg·g−1 FW), which contributed significantly to the dry matter content of the flesh, malic acid content that was higher (up to 48.4 mg·g−1 FW) than any published values for cherry flesh, and high anthocyanin content (up to 383.4 mg per 100 g FW). Cyanidin 3-glucosyl rutinoside was the most abundant compound. The analyzed germplasm could be the basis for breeding programs and new industrial products with high nutritional value.
Ryan W. Dickson and Paul R. Fisher
Objectives were 1) to quantify acidic and basic effects on the root zone pH for eight vegetable and herb species grown in peat-based substrate and hydroponic nutrient solution and 2) to determine the applied NH4 +:NO3 – ratio expected to have a neutral pH reaction for each species during its vegetative growth phase. In one experiment, plants were grown for 33 days in substrate (70% peat:30% perlite by volume), and were fertilized with a nutrient solution containing 7.14 milli-equivalents (mEq)·L–1 N and NH4 +:NO3 – ratios ranging from 0:100 to 40:60. During the second experiment, the same species were grown in hydroponic nutrient solutions at 7.14 mEq·L–1 N with NH4 +:NO3 – ratios ranging from 0:100 to 30:70, and data were collected over a 6-day period. In substrate, species increased root zone pH when supplied 0:100 solution, except for cucumber, which did not change substrate pH. Increasing the NH4 +:NO3 – ratio to 40:60 increased acidity and decreased pH across species. Similar trends were observed in hydroponics, in which the most basic response occurred across species with 0:100, and the most acidic response occurred with 30:70. Arugula was the only species that increased root zone pH with all three NH4 +:NO3 – ratios in substrate and hydroponics. In substrate and hydroponics, mEq of acidity (negative) or basicity (positive) produced per gram dry weight gain per plant (mEq·g−1) correlated positively with mEq·g−1 net cation minus anion uptake, respectively, in which greater cation uptake resulted in acidity and greater anion uptake resulted in basicity. In hydroponics, the greatest net anion uptake occurred with 0:100, and increasing the NH4 +:NO3 – ratio increased total cation uptake across species. Cucumber had the most acidic effect and required less than 10% of N as NH4 +-N for a neutral pH over time, arugula was the most basic and required more than 20% NH4 +-N, and the remaining species had neutral percent NH4 +-N between 10% and 20% of N. Increasing the NH4 +:NO3 – ratio decreased Ca2+ uptake across all species in hydroponics, which could potentially impact tip burn and postharvest quality negatively. Controlling root zone pH in substrate and hydroponic culture requires regular pH monitoring in combination with NH4 +:NO3 – adjustments and other pH management strategies, such as injecting mineral acid to neutralize irrigation water alkalinity or adjusting the limestone incorporation rate for substrate.
Yuxiang Wang, Liqin Li, Youping Sun and Xin Dai
Spirea (Spiraea sp.) plants are commonly used in landscapes in Utah and the intermountain western United States. The relative salt tolerance of seven japanese spirea (Spiraea japonica) cultivars (Galen, Minspi, NCSX1, NCSX2, SMNSJMFP, Tracy, and Yan) were evaluated in a greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with a nutrient solution with an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.2 dS·m−1 (control) or saline solutions with an EC of 3.0 or 6.0 dS·m−1 once per week for 8 weeks. At 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment, all japanese spirea cultivars irrigated with saline solution with an EC of 3.0 dS·m−1 still exhibited good or excellent visual quality, with all plants having visual scores of 4 or 5 (0 = dead, 1 = severe foliar salt damage, 2 = moderate foliar salt damage, 3 = slight foliar salt damage, 4 = minimal foliar salt damage, 5 = excellent), except for Tracy and Yan, with only 29% and 64%, respectively, of plants with visual scores less than 3. When irrigated with saline solution with an EC of 6.0 dS·m−1, both ‘Tracy’ and ‘Yan’ plants died, and 75% of ‘NCSX2’ plants died. ‘Minspi’ showed severe foliar salt damage, with 32% of plants having a visual score of 1; 25% of plants died. ‘Galen’ and ‘NCSX1’ had slight-to-moderate foliar salt damage, with 25% and 21%, respectively, of plants with visual scores of 2 or less. However, 64% of ‘SMNSJMFP’ plants had good or excellent visual quality, with visual scores more than 4. Saline irrigation water with an EC of 3.0 dS·m−1 decreased the shoot dry weight of ‘Galen’, ‘Minspi’, ‘SMNSJMFP’, and ‘Yan’ by 27%, 22%, 28%, and 35%, respectively, compared with that of the control. All japanese spirea cultivars had 35% to 56% lower shoot dry weight than the control when they were irrigated with saline irrigation water with an EC of 6.0 dS·m−1. The japanese spirea were moderately sensitive to the salinity levels in this experiment. ‘Galen’ and ‘SMNSJMFP’ japanese spirea exhibited less foliar salt damage and reductions in shoot dry weight and were relatively more tolerant to the increased salinity levels tested in this study than the remaining five cultivars (Minspi, NCSX1, NCSX2, Tracy, and Yan).
Richard P. Marini, James R. Schupp, Tara Auxt Baugher and Robert Crassweller
Canopies of ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ trees, trained to the vertical axis, were divided into eight vertical sections, each representing 12.5% of the tree canopy. The diameter of all ‘Gala’ fruit and fruit weight for all ‘Fuji’ fruit were recorded for each canopy section. Fruit size from most canopy sections was normally distributed and distributions were similar for most sections. Therefore, fruit size distribution for a tree can be estimated by harvesting fruit from two sections of a tree, representing 25% of the canopy. For small trees in intensive plantings, with canopy diameters less than 2.0 m, average fruit diameter or fruit weight estimated from all fruit collected from 25% of the canopy may provide estimates within 7% of the true value.
Alex J. Lindsey, Joseph DeFrank and Zhiqiang Cheng
The use of nonpotable water for irrigation on various sport venues has led to an increased use of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) turf in Hawaii. An ongoing challenge many seashore paspalum turf managers struggle with is bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) infestations. Herbicide efficacy studies were conducted at the Hoakalei Country Club [‘SeaDwarf’ seashore paspalum (fairway cut)] and the Magoon Research Station [‘SeaStar’ seashore paspalum (grown in container)] on the island of Oahu in Hawaii. Spray applications of the herbicides mesotrione, topramezone, metribuzin, and ethofumesate were evaluated alone and in tank mixtures for bermudagrass suppression and seashore paspalum injury. At the Hoakalei Country Club, maximum bermudagrass injury with minimal seashore paspalum discoloration was obtained with tank mixes of mesotrione (0.06 lb/acre) + metribuzin (0.19 lb/acre) + ethofumesate (1.00 lb/acre) and topramezone (0.02 lb/acre) + metribuzin (0.19 lb/acre) + ethofumesate (1.00 lb/acre). Unacceptable seashore paspalum turf injury was obtained in all treatments that did not include metribuzin. At the Magoon Research Station, maximum selective bermudagrass suppression was achieved with tank mixes of topramezone (0.01 lb/acre) + ethofumesate (1.00 lb/acre) and topramezone (0.01 lb/acre) + metribuzin (0.09 lb/acre) + ethofumesate (1.00 lb/acre). The addition of metribuzin and/or ethofumesate to the tank mix safened (reduced turf discoloration) seashore paspalum to topramezone or mesotrione foliar bleaching. Tank mixes of mesotrione, topramezone, metribuzin, and ethofumesate have the potential for bermudagrass suppression and control of other grassy weeds in seashore paspalum turf.
M. Lenny Wells, Eric P. Prostko and O. Wendell Carter
A large number of agronomic and horticultural crops are susceptible to injury and yield loss from drift-level exposures to synthetic auxin herbicides. A new generation of genetically modified crops including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), field corn (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max), and canola (Brassica napus) with resistance to dicamba and 2,4-D herbicides has been developed to address the problem of glyphosate-resistant weeds. In the few years since their commercial introduction, these technologies have been rapidly adopted. The objective of this study was to determine the potential effects of simulated, single drift events of 2,4-D and dicamba on pecan (Carya illinoinensis) trees. 2,4-D amine [3.8 lb/gal acid equivalent (a.e.)] or dicamba-Diglycolamine salt (4.0 lb/gal a.e.) were applied in 1.0%, 0.1%, and 0.01% by volume spray solutions to pecan trees in June 2013. In 2016 and 2017, 2,4-D choline (3.8 lb/gal a.e.) or dicamba-N,N-Bis-(3-aminopropyl) methylamine (5.0 lb/gal a.e.) were applied in 1.0%, 0.1%, and 0.01% by volume spray solutions to pecan trees in May. These results suggest that serious injury can occur to pecan trees receiving a drift application of 1.0% by volume dicamba or 2,4-D. This injury includes deformed foliage, dead foliage, dead limbs, and/or branches, and arrested nut development. There were no major differences in the response of pecan to either dicamba or 2,4-D at similar rates in this study. Pecan damage resulting from off-target movement of 2,4-D and dicamba at rates ≥1% by volume has the potential to cause significant injury. Yield was not negatively affected by any of the treatments, suggesting that pecan trees can compensate for the observed injury to some extent. The effect of treatments on percent kernel was variable.