Canopies of ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ trees, trained to the vertical axis, were divided into eight vertical sections, each representing 12.5% of the tree canopy. The diameter of all ‘Gala’ fruit and fruit weight for all ‘Fuji’ fruit were recorded for each canopy section. Fruit size from most canopy sections was normally distributed and distributions were similar for most sections. Therefore, fruit size distribution for a tree can be estimated by harvesting fruit from two sections of a tree, representing 25% of the canopy. For small trees in intensive plantings, with canopy diameters less than 2.0 m, average fruit diameter or fruit weight estimated from all fruit collected from 25% of the canopy may provide estimates within 7% of the true value.
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Richard P. Marini, James R. Schupp, Tara Auxt Baugher and Robert Crassweller
Alex J. Lindsey, Joseph DeFrank and Zhiqiang Cheng
The use of nonpotable water for irrigation on various sport venues has led to an increased use of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) turf in Hawaii. An ongoing challenge many seashore paspalum turf managers struggle with is bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) infestations. Herbicide efficacy studies were conducted at the Hoakalei Country Club [‘SeaDwarf’ seashore paspalum (fairway cut)] and the Magoon Research Station [‘SeaStar’ seashore paspalum (grown in container)] on the island of Oahu in Hawaii. Spray applications of the herbicides mesotrione, topramezone, metribuzin, and ethofumesate were evaluated alone and in tank mixtures for bermudagrass suppression and seashore paspalum injury. At the Hoakalei Country Club, maximum bermudagrass injury with minimal seashore paspalum discoloration was obtained with tank mixes of mesotrione (0.06 lb/acre) + metribuzin (0.19 lb/acre) + ethofumesate (1.00 lb/acre) and topramezone (0.02 lb/acre) + metribuzin (0.19 lb/acre) + ethofumesate (1.00 lb/acre). Unacceptable seashore paspalum turf injury was obtained in all treatments that did not include metribuzin. At the Magoon Research Station, maximum selective bermudagrass suppression was achieved with tank mixes of topramezone (0.01 lb/acre) + ethofumesate (1.00 lb/acre) and topramezone (0.01 lb/acre) + metribuzin (0.09 lb/acre) + ethofumesate (1.00 lb/acre). The addition of metribuzin and/or ethofumesate to the tank mix safened (reduced turf discoloration) seashore paspalum to topramezone or mesotrione foliar bleaching. Tank mixes of mesotrione, topramezone, metribuzin, and ethofumesate have the potential for bermudagrass suppression and control of other grassy weeds in seashore paspalum turf.
M. Lenny Wells, Eric P. Prostko and O. Wendell Carter
A large number of agronomic and horticultural crops are susceptible to injury and yield loss from drift-level exposures to synthetic auxin herbicides. A new generation of genetically modified crops including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), field corn (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max), and canola (Brassica napus) with resistance to dicamba and 2,4-D herbicides has been developed to address the problem of glyphosate-resistant weeds. In the few years since their commercial introduction, these technologies have been rapidly adopted. The objective of this study was to determine the potential effects of simulated, single drift events of 2,4-D and dicamba on pecan (Carya illinoinensis) trees. 2,4-D amine [3.8 lb/gal acid equivalent (a.e.)] or dicamba-Diglycolamine salt (4.0 lb/gal a.e.) were applied in 1.0%, 0.1%, and 0.01% by volume spray solutions to pecan trees in June 2013. In 2016 and 2017, 2,4-D choline (3.8 lb/gal a.e.) or dicamba-N,N-Bis-(3-aminopropyl) methylamine (5.0 lb/gal a.e.) were applied in 1.0%, 0.1%, and 0.01% by volume spray solutions to pecan trees in May. These results suggest that serious injury can occur to pecan trees receiving a drift application of 1.0% by volume dicamba or 2,4-D. This injury includes deformed foliage, dead foliage, dead limbs, and/or branches, and arrested nut development. There were no major differences in the response of pecan to either dicamba or 2,4-D at similar rates in this study. Pecan damage resulting from off-target movement of 2,4-D and dicamba at rates ≥1% by volume has the potential to cause significant injury. Yield was not negatively affected by any of the treatments, suggesting that pecan trees can compensate for the observed injury to some extent. The effect of treatments on percent kernel was variable.
Mohsen Hatami, Siamak Kalantari, Forouzandeh Soltani and John C. Beaulieu
Dudaim melon (Cucumis melo Group Dudaim) is a unique edible melon for which few postharvest physiology studies have been conducted. To investigate the postharvest behavior of dudaim melon, two cultivars (Zangi-Abad and Kermanshah) were planted, tagged at anthesis, and harvested at two maturity stages: 21 and 28 d after anthesis (DAA). Harvested fruit were stored at 5 or 13 °C for up to 3 weeks and various quality parameters including color, firmness, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), weight loss, chilling injury (CI), ethylene production, protein content, glucose content, fructose content, sucrose content, and maltose content were assessed during storage. After 3 weeks of storage at 13 °C, early-harvested fruit (21 DAA) had relatively similar color values (L*, lightness; a*, green–red tones; b*, blue–yellow tones) and TA compared with late-harvested fruit (28 DAA); however, some quality traits, such as TSS, were not similar. Ethylene content decreased initially after harvest and then started to increase during storage at 13 °C. For most treatments, glucose and fructose contents decreased whereas sucrose and maltose contents increased with advancing maturity. Increased ethylene production, in concert with color development at 13 °C, similar to ripe fruit, and the changing balance of measured mono- and disaccharide sugars in harvested fruit likely indicates ‘Kermanshah’ is climacteric. Results for ‘Zangi-Abad’ were not as definitive. Dudaim melon fruit can be harvested at an optimum stage of maturity, similar to known climacteric melon fruit, and then allowed to ripen at proper storage temperatures before consumption. Based on the results of this study, we recommend that harvest at 21 DAA and storage at a nonchilling temperature such as 13 °C are the optimal stage and temperature for long storage purposes.
Russell Galanti, Alyssa Cho, Amjad Ahmad and Javier Mollinedo
Nitrogen (N) management in macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) orchards is an important concern for growers. Leaf tissue analysis is the accepted method for determining N status in macadamia; however, this process is expensive and time-consuming. The chlorophyll meter has been used in other crops to estimate N status in plants through estimation of the amount of chlorophyll in leaf tissue. The use of the chlorophyll meter in two macadamia cultivars (Kakea and Kau) at two locations in Hawai’i (Kapa’au and Pahala) and five time periods (12 Apr. 2017, 13 June 2017, 15 June 2017, 18 Dec. 2017, and 20 Feb. 2018) was assessed. Leaf samples were collected based on a tissue-sampling protocol, chlorophyll meter (SPAD) values were collected, and leaves were analyzed for total N concentration. Data were analyzed statistically using linear regression. Leaf tissue N concentration had a positive monotonic relationship to SPAD values for both macadamia cultivars, both locations, and all sampling periods. The sampling period of Apr. 2017 for ‘Kakea’ macadamia had the greatest R 2 value for the linear regression at 0.85. The Feb. 2018 sampling period had an R 2 value for the linear regression of 0.74. ‘Kau’ macadamia had the greatest R 2 value for the linear regression of 0.24 in the Dec. 2017 sampling period. The slopes of the two macadamia cultivars for June 2017 were different from each other, suggesting that N recommendations need to be customized for specific macadamia cultivars if sampled in summer. The chlorophyll meter can be used for general estimation of tissue N in macadamia. Additional methods need to be considered and researched to refine procedures for direct estimation of total N concentration when using the chlorophyll meter.
Jenny C. Moore and Annette L. Wszelaki
Plasticulture systems with polyethylene (PE) mulch and drip tape are common for production of peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) in the United States because of their soil warming, moisture conservation, and other advantageous effects. However, disadvantages include disposal costs and plastic pollution of the environment and temperature stress in warm climates with black mulch. Use of biodegradable plastic mulches (BDMs) is becoming more common, as they provide the same benefits of PE mulch without the disposal problems. In 2017 and 2018, we conducted experiments in Knoxville, TN, comparing production of pepper fruit with five different BDM [one white-on-black (WOB) and four black], one black PE mulch, one brown creped, paper mulch, and bare ground control treatments. We also measured the durability and effectiveness of weed suppression of the different mulches over the growing season compared with a hand-weeded bare ground control. Most mulches were degraded, with 40% to 60% of the soil exposed by the end of the season, with the exception of the paper mulch, which was completely degraded at the end of both seasons. Yields were similar among treatments in 2017, with the exception of Naturecycle, which had the lowest yield. Weed pressure was severe, especially in 2018, largely due to early penetration of all mulches except paper by nutsedge. Due to the early and season-long weed pressure and heat stress in black mulches, there were fewer healthy plants in all black-colored mulch treatments in 2018, leading to reduced yields in these treatments. Paper mulch was the only treatment that prevented nutsedge growth; therefore, this treatment and the hand-weeded bare ground treatment had the greatest yields in 2018. WOB also had yields comparable with paper and bare ground plots in 2018, likely due to the cooling effect of the white mulch. The results suggest that in hot climates and in fields infested with nutsedge, paper mulches perform best for midseason pepper cultivation due to the cooling effects and superior weed control.
Ling Wang, Yu-jia Liu, Nai-xin Liu, Yue Gong, Ya-nan Li and Jing-hong Wang
David H Suchoff, Frank J. Louws and Christopher C. Gunter
Interest and use of grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in the United States continues to grow. Pioneered in Asia, herbaceous grafting is a commonly used cultural practice to manage many soilborne pathogens. Bacterial wilt (BW), caused by the pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, is an aggressive soilborne pathogen that affects tomato grown in the southeastern United States. Traditional fumigation methods have limited effectiveness in the management of this pathogen. The present study was conducted to compare the bacterial wilt resistance of three commercially available tomato rootstocks, which are purported to be resistant to bacterial wilt: ‘Cheong Gang’, ‘RST-04-106-T’, and ‘Shield’. The determinate hybrid tomato ‘Red Mountain’, which is susceptible to bacterial wilt, was used as the scion and nongrafted control. Three locations were used over 2 years in North Carolina: an on-farm site with a history of bacterial wilt and two North Carolina Department of Agriculture Research Stations with no recent history of bacterial wilt. No disease symptoms were observed in any of the three grafted treatments, whereas the nongrafted controls showed between 30% and 80% disease incidence at the on-farm location. The resultant rootstock-imparted resistance improved marketable yields by between 88% and 125% compared with the nongrafted plants. When grown in locations lacking BW there were no yield benefits to grafting with any of the three rootstocks.
Xiaojuan Zong, Brandon J. Denler, Gharbia H. Danial, Yongjian Chang and Guo-qing Song
‘Hansen 536’ (Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) is an important commercial rootstock for peach and almond. However, susceptibility to wet soil and bacterial canker has limited its use primarily to areas with less annual rainfall. Genetic engineering techniques offer an attractive approach to improve effectively the current problems with this cultivar. To develop an efficient shoot regeneration system from leaf explants, 10 culture media containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) or woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with different plant growth regulators were evaluated, and adventitious shoot regeneration occurred at frequencies ranging from 0% to 36.1%. Optimal regeneration with a frequency of 32.3% to 36.1% occurred with WPM medium containing 8.88 µm 6-benzylamino-purine (BAP) and 0.98 to 3.94 µm indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The regenerated shoots had a high rooting ability, and 80% of the in vitro shoots tested rooted and survived after being transplanted to substrate directly. Transient transformation showed an efficient delivery of the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (gusA) using all three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains tested with a concentration of OD600 0.5 to 1.0 for 4 days of cocultivation. The protocols described provide a foundation for further studies to improve shoot regeneration and stable transformation of the important peach and almond rootstock ‘Hansen 536’.