Many methods have been proposed for the identification of seed maturity, and almost all of them need to be performed after seed harvest. In this study, a real-time quantitative method that can be performed during seed development was used by integrating multiple-capsule traits using a high-throughput screening (HTS) technique. Capsule color, shape, and density parameters can reflect seed development and maturity. During seed development, we observed a fast decrease in color parameters (R, G, and B) and water content, as well as an increase in temperature sensitivity; an initial rise followed by decline in shape parameters [length, width, minimum circumscribed circle (MCC) diameter, area] was also observed; as well as irregular differentiation of density parameters of the capsules. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between seed maturity and capsule color, as well as its shape parameters (Table 1). In sum, our data demonstrate that that three-dimensional (3D) phenotypic platform can be used to differentiate seed maturity by quantitative evaluating multiple-capsule traits, which is a quantitative method for determining the maturity of seed while still growing in the fruit of the mother plant.
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Zhenhua Li, Yiling Liu and RenXiang Liu
Cristian E. Loyola, John M. Dole and Rebecca Dunning
In the United States and Canada, there has been an increase in the demand for local specialty cut flowers and a corresponding increase in production. To assess the needs of the industry, we electronically surveyed 1098 cut flower producers and handlers in the United States and Canada regarding their current cut flower production and postharvest problems, and customer issues. We received a total of 210 responses, resulting in a 19% response rate. The results showed that the main production problem was insect management; crop timing was the second most important problem and disease management was the third. Crop timing encompasses a range of related issues such as determining the correct harvest stage, harvest windows that are too short, flowering all at once, or lack of control when the crop is ready to harvest. The main postharvest problems were temperature management, hydration, and flower food management. Timing and stem length were the two most mentioned species-specific production issues, with each one listed by 10% or more of the respondents for eight of the total 31 species. Regarding on-farm postharvest handling, hydration and vase life were the two most mentioned issues; they were reported for five and three species, respectively. For postharvest during storage and transport, damage and hydration were the most common issues; these were listed for three species each. The most commonly mentioned customer complaints were vase life and shattering, which were reported for six and two species, respectively. These results will allow researchers and businesses to focus on the major cut flower production and postharvest issues and on crops that are most in need of improvement in North America.
Zhuping Fan, Yike Gao, Ling Guo, Ying Cao, Rong Liu and Qixiang Zhang
Bearded iris (Iris ×hybrida Hort.) is a large horticultural hybrid complex in the Iris genus, and the lack of understanding about its inheritance laws has seriously hindered the breeding process. From parental bearded iris ‘Indian Chief’ and ‘Sugar Blues’, four hybrid populations—including F1, F2, BC1P1, and BC1P2—were generated through hybridization. Fifteen key phenotypic traits, including plant height (PH), scape height (SH), length of fall (LF), width of fall (WF), length of standard (LS), width of standard (WS), and so on, were measured, and several genetic parameters (e.g., trait variation, heritability, trait correlation, distribution of flower color) were analyzed. The variation of phenotypic traits indicated that the F1 generation could produce larger flowers and a greater number of blooming stems than other generations, whereas backcrossing was beneficial at producing more flowers on one scape in the offspring of ‘Indian Chief’ and ‘Sugar Blues’. WF had the greatest broad-sense heritability (73.91%) among the 15 phenotypic traits, whereas the broad-sense heritability of SH was the lowest (2.06%). The correlation between a vegetative trait (PH) and a reproductive trait (WS) provided a path to early selection of germplasm. Furthermore, four important floral traits (LF, WF, LS, and WS) also correlated significantly to each other, thus simplifying the selection of larger flowers. Genes regulating fuchsia flower color were dominant over those for bluish purple flowers. Genetic effects of flower color in recurrent parents could be reinforced by backcrossing, thereby providing a potential way to modify flower color through hybridization.
Dario Mantovani, Adolfo Rosati and Domenico Perrone
The wild asparagus species Asparagus acutifolius L. is widespread in Mediterranean and subtropical environments, where its spears are consumed regularly. The species is known to have ecophysiologic plasticity, however there is no literature on this subject. This work aimed at assessing the photosynthetic characteristics of this wild species of asparagus, grown under full light (FL) and partial (i.e., about 40%) light (PL) conditions, and evaluating its ecophysiologic response to drought and temperature stress. The photosynthetic response to light of spears and of new cladodes (NC; current year) and old cladodes (OC; previous year) was measured using an infrared gas analyzer coupled with a climatized cuvette chamber. Cladodes net photosynthesis at high irradiance was also measured at varying air temperatures and decreasing soil water availability. Results indicate that developing spears were photosynthetically active with no difference between FL and PL treatments. Photosynthetic rates did not differ between NCs and OCs and were greater for FL cladodes, except at low irradiance. Well-watered plants were photosynthetically active from 0 to 45 °C, with a maximum photosynthetic rate of up to 9 µmol·m–2·s–1 at 30 °C and a decrease of about 60% at 45 °C. The species also demonstrated high tolerance to drought, with positive net photosynthesis even at predawn leaf water potential values of –2.4 MPa. Showing great ecophysiologic plasticity, this wild asparagus could be an interesting species in areas were conventional crop species are not profitable economically, or as an intercrop in agroforestry systems.
Yuanshuo Qu, Ryan M. Daddio, Patrick E. McCullough, Stacy A. Bonos and William A. Meyer
Methiozolin is a new herbicide that controls annual bluegrass (Poa annua) in turfgrasses, but the differential tolerance levels of fine fescues (Festuca sp.) has received limited investigation. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential injury from methiozolin when applied to chewings fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. fallax), strong creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. rubra), and hard fescue (Festuca brevipila). Nine different fine fescue populations (14W2 Comp, Fairmont, and Survivor chewings fescue; FT345, Miser, and Fenway strong creeping red fescue; and 14H4 Comp, Stonehenge, and Oxford hard fescue) were sprayed with methiozolin at five different rates (0.42, 0.83, 1.25, 1.67, and 2.09 lb/acre) at four different application timings [4 weeks before seeding (WBS), 2 WBS, at seeding (AS), and 2 weeks after germination (WAG)]. Untreated controls were also included for each combination. Significant reduction in germination of fine fescue was observed when methiozolin was applied before emergence for all tested application rates. Methiozolin at 1.25, 1.67, and 2.09 lb/acre applied before or at the day of seeding led to complete inhibition of germination in all fine fescue species tested. It was less injurious compared with methiozolin applied at 2 WAG, although a reduction in the percentage of green cover and biomass was observed for application rates greater or equal to 0.83 lb/acre. The hierarchical ranking of species injury from high to low is as follows: hard fescue, chewings fescue, and strong creeping red fescue. A possible solution for annual bluegrass control in fine fescue species with methiozolin is multiple postemergence applications up to a maximum rate of 0.83 lb/acre. Turf managers need to make adjustments in methiozolin application rates and timings based on fine fescue species to maximize selectivity for annual bluegrass control.
Alberto Sánchez-Estrada and Julián Cuevas
In countries new to producing ‘Manzanillo’ olive trees (Olea europaea), free cross-pollination is often insufficient to obtain high levels of fruit set. An appropriate pollination design is therefore essential to ensure a timely, abundant, and compatible pollen supply. With a view to determining whether a pollination deficit exists in a nontraditional olive area such as the northern Mexico, pollination experiments were carried out in two consecutive seasons in both a monovarietal and a multivarietal Manzanillo orchard, where Sevillano, Barouni, Picual, Pendolino, Mission, Nevadillo, and Frantoio trees were growing nearby. The pollination treatments were self-, open, and cross-pollination with ‘Barouni’ and ‘Sevillano’ pollen, the latter only in the multivarietal orchard. The results confirmed the full self-incompatible condition of ‘Manzanillo’. Open-pollination did not improve fruit set in the monovarietal orchard, but it did so significantly in the multivarietal plot, where fruit set levels under open-pollination matched those of cross-pollination. Lower pollen adhesion, as well as occasional decreased germination, and reduced and delayed pollen tube growth were observed under self-pollination, highlighting self-incompatibility reactions. The reduction in fertilization rates led to low fruit set under self-pollination. Positive effects of open- and cross-pollination treatments were also noted on fruit weight (despite higher crop loads) and pulp-to-pit ratios. A strategic plantation design, including appropriate pollinizers in the right number and position, is therefore suggested for increasing ‘Manzanillo’ fruit quality and yield in Mexico. Both ‘Barouni’ and ‘Sevillano’ served as efficient pollinizers for ‘Manzanillo’, although we recommend ‘Barouni’ as a more efficient because the bloom periods of them matched that of ‘Manzanillo’
Simona Proietti, Stefano Moscatello, Fiorella Villani, Federica Mecucci, Robert P. Walker, Franco Famiani and Alberto Battistelli
Key nutritional characteristics of the fruit flesh of 41 sour cherries growing in the region of Umbria in central Italy have been determined. Fruit size, flesh dry matter content, nonstructural carbohydrates, organic acids, and anthocyanins were the analyzed parameters. Both the growing environment and genotype were statistically significant for most of the characteristics. Morello sour cherries were characterized by a large amount of sorbitol (up to 44.2 mg·g−1 FW), which contributed significantly to the dry matter content of the flesh, malic acid content that was higher (up to 48.4 mg·g−1 FW) than any published values for cherry flesh, and high anthocyanin content (up to 383.4 mg per 100 g FW). Cyanidin 3-glucosyl rutinoside was the most abundant compound. The analyzed germplasm could be the basis for breeding programs and new industrial products with high nutritional value.
Ryan W. Dickson and Paul R. Fisher
Objectives were 1) to quantify acidic and basic effects on the root zone pH for eight vegetable and herb species grown in peat-based substrate and hydroponic nutrient solution and 2) to determine the applied NH4 +:NO3 – ratio expected to have a neutral pH reaction for each species during its vegetative growth phase. In one experiment, plants were grown for 33 days in substrate (70% peat:30% perlite by volume), and were fertilized with a nutrient solution containing 7.14 milli-equivalents (mEq)·L–1 N and NH4 +:NO3 – ratios ranging from 0:100 to 40:60. During the second experiment, the same species were grown in hydroponic nutrient solutions at 7.14 mEq·L–1 N with NH4 +:NO3 – ratios ranging from 0:100 to 30:70, and data were collected over a 6-day period. In substrate, species increased root zone pH when supplied 0:100 solution, except for cucumber, which did not change substrate pH. Increasing the NH4 +:NO3 – ratio to 40:60 increased acidity and decreased pH across species. Similar trends were observed in hydroponics, in which the most basic response occurred across species with 0:100, and the most acidic response occurred with 30:70. Arugula was the only species that increased root zone pH with all three NH4 +:NO3 – ratios in substrate and hydroponics. In substrate and hydroponics, mEq of acidity (negative) or basicity (positive) produced per gram dry weight gain per plant (mEq·g−1) correlated positively with mEq·g−1 net cation minus anion uptake, respectively, in which greater cation uptake resulted in acidity and greater anion uptake resulted in basicity. In hydroponics, the greatest net anion uptake occurred with 0:100, and increasing the NH4 +:NO3 – ratio increased total cation uptake across species. Cucumber had the most acidic effect and required less than 10% of N as NH4 +-N for a neutral pH over time, arugula was the most basic and required more than 20% NH4 +-N, and the remaining species had neutral percent NH4 +-N between 10% and 20% of N. Increasing the NH4 +:NO3 – ratio decreased Ca2+ uptake across all species in hydroponics, which could potentially impact tip burn and postharvest quality negatively. Controlling root zone pH in substrate and hydroponic culture requires regular pH monitoring in combination with NH4 +:NO3 – adjustments and other pH management strategies, such as injecting mineral acid to neutralize irrigation water alkalinity or adjusting the limestone incorporation rate for substrate.
Yuxiang Wang, Liqin Li, Youping Sun and Xin Dai
Spirea (Spiraea sp.) plants are commonly used in landscapes in Utah and the intermountain western United States. The relative salt tolerance of seven japanese spirea (Spiraea japonica) cultivars (Galen, Minspi, NCSX1, NCSX2, SMNSJMFP, Tracy, and Yan) were evaluated in a greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with a nutrient solution with an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.2 dS·m−1 (control) or saline solutions with an EC of 3.0 or 6.0 dS·m−1 once per week for 8 weeks. At 8 weeks after the initiation of treatment, all japanese spirea cultivars irrigated with saline solution with an EC of 3.0 dS·m−1 still exhibited good or excellent visual quality, with all plants having visual scores of 4 or 5 (0 = dead, 1 = severe foliar salt damage, 2 = moderate foliar salt damage, 3 = slight foliar salt damage, 4 = minimal foliar salt damage, 5 = excellent), except for Tracy and Yan, with only 29% and 64%, respectively, of plants with visual scores less than 3. When irrigated with saline solution with an EC of 6.0 dS·m−1, both ‘Tracy’ and ‘Yan’ plants died, and 75% of ‘NCSX2’ plants died. ‘Minspi’ showed severe foliar salt damage, with 32% of plants having a visual score of 1; 25% of plants died. ‘Galen’ and ‘NCSX1’ had slight-to-moderate foliar salt damage, with 25% and 21%, respectively, of plants with visual scores of 2 or less. However, 64% of ‘SMNSJMFP’ plants had good or excellent visual quality, with visual scores more than 4. Saline irrigation water with an EC of 3.0 dS·m−1 decreased the shoot dry weight of ‘Galen’, ‘Minspi’, ‘SMNSJMFP’, and ‘Yan’ by 27%, 22%, 28%, and 35%, respectively, compared with that of the control. All japanese spirea cultivars had 35% to 56% lower shoot dry weight than the control when they were irrigated with saline irrigation water with an EC of 6.0 dS·m−1. The japanese spirea were moderately sensitive to the salinity levels in this experiment. ‘Galen’ and ‘SMNSJMFP’ japanese spirea exhibited less foliar salt damage and reductions in shoot dry weight and were relatively more tolerant to the increased salinity levels tested in this study than the remaining five cultivars (Minspi, NCSX1, NCSX2, Tracy, and Yan).
Richard P. Marini, James R. Schupp, Tara Auxt Baugher and Robert Crassweller
Canopies of ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ trees, trained to the vertical axis, were divided into eight vertical sections, each representing 12.5% of the tree canopy. The diameter of all ‘Gala’ fruit and fruit weight for all ‘Fuji’ fruit were recorded for each canopy section. Fruit size from most canopy sections was normally distributed and distributions were similar for most sections. Therefore, fruit size distribution for a tree can be estimated by harvesting fruit from two sections of a tree, representing 25% of the canopy. For small trees in intensive plantings, with canopy diameters less than 2.0 m, average fruit diameter or fruit weight estimated from all fruit collected from 25% of the canopy may provide estimates within 7% of the true value.