The volatile profile of ‘Redchief Delicious’ apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) fruit was evaluated at 18 time points from 3 weeks before to 8 weeks after onset of autocatalytic ethylene production to capture the dynamics associated with development from mature green to senescent fruit. Minor amounts of ester production began several days before the onset of ethylene production. Ester production rose rapidly as internal ethylene levels increased beyond 22 nmol·L−1 (0.5 µL·L−1). Peak ester production roughly coincided with maximum ethylene synthesis, declining thereafter. Ester production was further evaluated according to the acid- (alkanoate) and alcohol- (alkyl) derived portions of the ester. The maximum rate of production for a given ester tended to occur later in development as the chain length of the alcohol-derived portion declined. The production rate for many esters paralleled the rate of emanation of their respective alcohol substrates, suggesting that availability of the alcohols limits ester production more than availability of the acid substrates. Combining production rates with sensory descriptors and human sensitivity to individual volatiles permitted approximations of aroma sensations likely engendered by the fruit throughout ripening. Overripe and alcoholic sensations are predicted to increase 2 weeks after the initiation of ripening in response to an increase in the production of ethyl esters. Acetate esters predominated, comprising 50% to 80% of esters throughout maturation and ripening, indicating that the substrate acetyl-CoA may be at saturating levels for alcohol acyl transferase (AAT) at the final step of ester formation. Acetate feeding did not enhance ester production, although label from 13C-acetate was extensively incorporated into esters. The data are consistent with the action of multiple AAT isozymes differing in activity and substrate preference. Incorporation of labeled 13C-acetate into precursors of esters, alcohols, and acids, reflected ester biosynthesis via 1- and 2-carbon chain elongation pathways in ripening ‘Redchief Delicious’ apple fruit.
Alejandra Ferenczi, Nobuko Sugimoto, and Randolph M. Beaudry
Lyle T. Wallace and Michael J. Havey
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants regenerated from cell cultures occasionally possess mosaic (MSC) phenotypes on cotyledons and leaves. Lines MSC3 and MSC16 have distinct MSC phenotypes and originated from plants regenerated from different cell-culture experiments established using a highly inbred wild-type cucumber. Both the mitochondrial (mt) DNA and MSC phenotype of cucumber show paternal transmission, and MSC3 and MSC16 have different mt coding regions at significantly lower copy numbers relative to wild-type plants. A nuclear locus, Paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm), conditions a high proportion of wild-type progenies, specifically when MSC16 is crossed as the male with wild-type female plants. During this research, we identified plants that produced a high proportion of wild-type progenies in crosses with MSC3 as the male parent. Plants from an F2 family were crossed with MSC3 as the male, progenies were scored for numbers of MSC vs. wild-type plants, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified for genetic mapping. A major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 3 was associated with a higher frequency of wild-type progenies from MSC3 as the male parent, and the 1.5-logarithm-of-odds interval for the most significant SNP was located 627 kb from Psm. These results reveal that separate genetic factors control sorting to the wild-type phenotype in progenies from crosses with different MSC parents. The identification of causal genes controlling mitochondrial sorting in cucumber should provide insight regarding nuclear-mitochondrial interactions affecting the prevalence of specific mitochondrial DNA in plants.
Xiuli Lv, Yuan Guan, Jian Wang, Yanwei Zhou, Qunlu Liu, and Zequn Yu
To reveal the genetic diversity and genetic relationships of China’s Bergenia germplasm, 28 Bergenia accessions from different regions in China were analyzed by 24 intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The results showed that 318 sites were amplified in all germplasm, including 307 polymorphic sites, and the percentage of polymorphic sites was 96.54%. Cluster analysis showed that the 28 accessions were divided into three categories, with a similarity coefficient of 0.5475. Bergenia purpurascens was clustered into one category; B. scopulosa was clustered into one category; and B. tianquaninsis, B. emeiensis, B. stracheyi, and B. crassifolia were clustered into one category. The results of the cluster analysis indicated that the 28 accessions were not completely classified by origin. Using the ISSR marker technique to analyze the phylogenetic relationship of Bergenia germplasm is helpful for identifying valuable resources and providing a theoretical basis for the selection of breeding parents.
Jiayi Ji, Zhenglin Li, Ji Tian, Jie Zhang, Yanfen Lu, Xiaoxiao Qin, Jianjun Li, Liqiang Liu, Zhe Gao, Yujing Hu, and Yuncong Yao
Andrew Sherwood, Lisa W. Alexander, Matthew D. Clark, Steve McNamara, and Stan C. Hokanson
Oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia Bartr.) is an understory shrub native to the southeastern United States. Hydrangeas are popular ornamental landscape plants; however, little is known about the diversity in horticulturally important traits for oakleaf hydrangea. Information regarding the variation in important traits could guide future breeding efforts for the species. Seed was collected from 55 populations throughout the range of the species for the purpose of conducting a horticultural characterization of the species compared with select cultivars. Plant architecture was characterized as plant height, number of nodes, internode length, number of branches, and plant width. Plant architecture was measured for container-grown and field-grown plants in two locations (Minnesota and Tennessee). Tolerance to leaf spot (Xanthomonas campestris L.) was characterized for wild-collected seedlings and cultivars by measuring disease severity under exposure to ambient inoculum. Cold hardiness was characterized during two winters with a controlled freezing experiment. During the first winter, seedlings were tested in January; during the second winter, seedlings and cultivars were tested monthly from October through April. Plant architecture varied by environment, with plants growing larger in Tennessee than in Minnesota. The heights of container-grown and field-grown plants were correlated with the collection site latitude (r = −0.66), with populations from the northeastern extent of the range of the species being the most compact, and populations from Florida being the tallest. Leaf spot severity varied significantly among populations and cultivars and was also correlated with latitude for the seedlings (r = 0.70). Two populations in Florida were identified as sources of high tolerance to leaf spot, whereas ‘Flemygea’ and ‘Alice’ were identified as having moderate tolerance to leaf spot. Cold hardiness varied among populations and cultivars and among months of the winter. The overall maximum cold hardiness was observed in February [mean lethal temperature (LT50) = −33.7 °C], and several populations maintained an extreme level of cold hardiness into late winter. Midwinter cold hardiness also varied by latitude (r = −0.65), with northern populations showing higher levels of cold hardiness. These results indicate that certain wild oakleaf hydrangea populations will be useful for introgressing novel variation into breeding programs.
Cyrus A. Smith, James L. Walworth, Mary J. Comeau, Richard J. Heerema, Joshua D. Sherman, and Randall Norton
A field study was conducted to evaluate tolerance of pecan rootstocks to soil salinity and sodicity. Seven cultivars—Elliott, Giles, Ideal, Peruque, Riverside, ‘Shoshoni, and VC1-68—were selected from a range of geographic regions of origin. The soil of the experimental plot was a poorly drained, saline–sodic Pima silty clay variant. The irrigation water was a moderately saline mix of Gila River and local groundwater with an electrical conductivity of 2.8 dS⋅m–1, containing primarily ions of Na and Cl. Eighty seeds of each cultivar were planted in a greenhouse in late Feb. 2016; 48 seedlings of each cultivar were transplanted into field plots in Feb. 2017. Half the trees received a soil-based application of Zn–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at planting. The trees were observed and rated for both vigor and resistance to salt injury on seven separate occasions. Trunk diameter was measured each dormant season. Leaf samples were collected on 9 Oct. 2019 and 6 Oct. 2020, and were analyzed for nutrient content. Zn-EDTA was not found to have a significant effect on growth, vigor, or resistance to salt injury. ‘Elliott’ seedlings exhibited greater tolerance for the alkaline, saline–sodic soil conditions than other cultivars. ‘Giles’ and ‘Peruque’ were most severely affected. Resistance to salt injury (ranging from marginal leaf burn to necrosis of entire leaf), vigor, and growth correlated more strongly with foliar concentrations of Na than Cl or K during 2019. Vigor and growth were not significantly correlated with foliar Na, Cl, or K concentrations in 2020. The foliar K:Na ratio had a nearly equal correlation with resistance to salt injury and a greater correlation with growth than that of Na alone in 2019. However, although the correlation of the K:Na ratio with vigor was stronger than that of Cl or K, Na had the strongest correlation with vigor in 2019. In 2020, the only significant correlation of growth and vigor was with the K:Na ratio. The strongest correlation with resistance to salt injury in 2020 was with foliar Na concentration.
Carolina Font i Forcada, Gemma Reig, Christian Fontich, Ignasi Batlle, Simó Alegre, Celia M. Cantín, Iban Eduardo, Joaquim Carbó, Arsène Maillard, Laurence Maillard, and Joan Bonany
Michael J. Havey and Sunggil Kim
Hybrid-onion (Allium cepa) seed is produced using systems of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and two different CMS systems have been genetically characterized. S cytoplasm was the first source of onion CMS identified in the 1920s, followed by T cytoplasm that was described in the 1960s. Numerous studies have documented polymorphisms in the organellar DNAs differentiating S and T cytoplasms from the normal male-fertile cytoplasm of onion. There may be additional source(s) of onion CMS that have been described as “T-like” and appear to be more similar to N and T cytoplasms than S cytoplasm. In this study, onion breeding lines from commercial entities were evaluated for molecular markers distinguishing sources of onion CMS. Our results reveal that bona fide T cytoplasm is rarely used commercially to produce hybrid-onion seed, and both S cytoplasm and “T-like” cytoplasm are widely used. We propose that this “T-like” cytoplasm be labeled as “R” cytoplasm because it may have originated from population(s) of ‘Rijnsburger’ onion in the Netherlands. The results of this study also help to clarify inconsistent reports regarding nuclear male-fertility restoration for different sources of onion CMS.
Minghao Lin, Pengqi Liu, Li Jun, Wenjun Zhou, and Jun Yuan
Low mobility and solubility reduce the availability of traditional phosphorus (P) fertilizer in red acidic soil. Hydroxyapatite (HAP), especially nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAP), may be more efficient than P fertilizer because of its nanoparticle characteristics. Camellia oleifera (C. oleifera) is an edible oil tree whose productivity is greatly affected by P fertilizer. During this study, we investigated the migration of different particle sizes of HAP (20 nm, 200 nm, and 80 μm) and their effects on the seedling growth of C. oleifera cultivar Huashuo (HS) cuttings. A column experiment showed that the efflux ratio was negatively correlated with particle size in red acidic soil. The leaching results revealed that the contents of total P and available P in the 20-nm treatment were significantly higher than those in the 200-nm and 80-μm treatments in the deep soil (10–15 cm or 15–20 cm), whereas the application of 20-nm n-HAP caused 13.43% wastage of available P. During the container experiments, 200-nm and 20-nm HAP significantly promoted the growth of the seedlings in terms of seedling height, stem diameter, and biomass. The available P contents in the rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere soils were negatively correlated with the HAP particle sizes. In conclusion, the migration of HAP is inversely correlated with particle size, and HAP improves the P bioavailability in red acidic soil. In summary, 200-nm HAP was the best P fertilizer for the seedlings of HS among the three particle sizes. This study offers preliminary results indicating that 200-nm HAP might be a better P fertilizer compared with other two HAP particle sizes for use in future C. oleifera orchards.
Daniel Oscar Pereira Soares, Karla Gabrielle Dutra Pinto, Laís Alves da Gama, Carla Coelho Ferreira, Prasanta C. Bhowmik, and Sônia Maria Figueiredo Albertino
Cassava production in Amazonas state deserves to be highlighted due to its great historical, social, and economic importance. Weed competition severely constrains cassava production in Amazonas. The use of cover crops is safe and very efficient at eliminating weeds while keeping the soil covered. The objective of this study was to evaluate physical properties of soil and glyphosate residues in storage roots as a function of the weed management in cassava. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and five repetitions. The treatments were biological control with two species of cover plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis and Mucuna pruriens), chemical control, mechanical control, and treatment with no weed control. The cover crops characteristics evaluated were dry weight, the percentage of cover, and rate of decomposition of plant residues. In the soil, the bulk density and total porosity were determined. The contamination of the storage roots was evaluated based on the analysis of glyphosate residue. Brachiaria ruziziensis presented more dry weight and higher percentage of cover compared with M. pruriens, and both cover crops showed very similar decomposition rates. The physical properties of soil were unaffected by any treatment evaluated. There was no detection of glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in any treatment evaluated. Chemical control with glyphosate is not able to contaminate cassava storage roots.