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Research suggests consumers are willing to pay a premium for goods from industries that design products using environmentally sound practices and that these practices lead to customer loyalty. Using environmentally friendly practices can differentiate a business from competitors through branding, which has been known to help increase profit margins and stimulate demand in a saturated market. The main purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of consumer perceptions and willingness to pay as they relate to retail floral providers’ sustainable and environmentally friendly practices. A total of 2172 people responded to an online survey. The sample used in this study was a random selection of individuals 18 years and older living in the United States. Survey responses were collected from 21 Dec 2022 to 27 Jan 2023. Respondents indicated the use of locally sourced flowers followed by the recycling of flower waste through composting as the two sustainable attributes that would increase their willingness to make purchases the most. Respondents indicated the strongest willingness to pay 10% or more for locally sourced flowers (61.7%), followed by flower providers composting their floral waste (59.5%). In addition, 50% or more of all respondents indicated a willingness to pay 10% or more for all the sustainable attributes for which they were asked. The methods in which retail floral providers source floral material, create floral designs, and market and brand their company are important considerations when promoting their services toward environmentally conscious consumers and in creating a valuable repeat customer base.

Open Access

Variegated temple bamboo (Sinobambusa tootsik f. luteoloalbostriata) is one of the native variegated bamboo species has some whole green (WG) and whole white (WW) leaves in addition to striped green and white ones. The life span of WW leaves is short, but the life span of striped leaves (SLs) is unaffected by the area of white mesophyll, and the SL phenotype is well maintained. To explore the mechanism of phenotypic stability of SL, we took five leaf phenotypes as study materials: WG, WW, SL, the green part of SL (SG), and the white part of SL (SW). Through the measurement of photosynthetic pigments, leaf nutrient elements, chloroplast synthesis–related hormones and their precursors in the leaves, and antioxidant system parameters, we examined the antioxidant adaptation mechanism of the white mesophyll cells of S. tootsik f. luteoloalbostriata. The results indicated that abscisic acid (ABA) levels were substantially higher in WW leaves than in SW leaves, and salicylic acid (SA) levels were significantly higher in SW leaves compared with WW leaves. Levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), and SA were substantially higher in WW and SW than in the leaves of the other three phenotypes. Glutathione (GSH) levels were substantially higher in SW than in SG and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were significantly lower. Overall, the white mesophyll cells of S. tootsik f. luteoloalbostriata had strong antioxidant properties. SA and OPDA jointly act on the antioxidant pathway to reduce the content of ROS in leaves, thus ensuring the stability of SL.

Open Access

Red radish is a nutritious root vegetable crop that has a short production cycle. Water deficit limits plant productivity, affecting its quantity and quality. Compost amendment offers a potential solution to mitigate water deficit effects. This study assessed the impact of compost manure rates (0%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) and irrigation treatments (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of evapotranspiration) on ‘Crimson Giant’ red radish production. Significant differences in growth and quality were observed among these treatments. Compost rates of 75% and 100% improved leaf gas exchange, plant growth (leaf count, fresh weight, dry weight, and area; stem length), root development, total yield (root fresh weight, dry weight, diameter, and length), and root quality (vitamin C and total soluble solid and titratable acidity). The 100% compost and 100% irrigation combination achieved the highest yields. Under water deficit, applying 75% or 100% compost with 80% irrigation conserved 20% of water while maintaining radish output. Overall, compost amendment effectively enhanced red radish growth and production under water deficit.

Open Access
Open Access

A 1975 fig crop reference chapter written by W.B. Storey contains pedigree information involving 30 cultivars from the University of California breeding program and early California. The data were compared with the records from the US Department of Agriculture and statements from two other sources. Graphical representations were used to determine differences among the authors. All data are supplied in this article and supplemental materials. An estimate of correct parentage is presented in the final graph.

Open Access

Fritillaria crassicaulis S. C. Chen is a precious traditional Chinese medicine, but the number of populations has declined rapidly due to overexploitation. An artificial rapid propagation system was established to screen the suitable plant regeneration method and to explore the efficient propagation method, useful for propagation technology or for further research and development of F. crassicaulis. This study selected scale as the experimental material, set Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium as the basic medium, and optimized the types and proportions of plant growth regulator (PGR) suitable for callus induction, bulblet differentiation and proliferation, and plant regeneration by means of single-factor, full-factorial, and L9 (3)4 orthogonal experiments. Results demonstrate that in the experiment with single exogenous PGR, the high concentration of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) was significantly better than kinetin (KT) to induce bulblets, 2, 4-dichloroacetic acid (2, 4-D) had a significant effect on callus induction, and a higher concentration of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) was beneficial to the occurrence and growth of bulbs, but the rooting effect promoted by indole butyric acid (IBA) was preferable to that by NAA. In MS medium with 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D and 1.5 mg/L 6-BA, a large number of yellowish-green compact calli could be induced from the scales with the calli induction frequency at 93.3%, and about 11.4% materials directly differentiated bulblets. In the subsequent orthogonal experiment, after the scales were cultured in MS medium with 2.0 mg/L 6-BA, 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D, and 0.1 mg/L NAA for 20 days, the small yellow and white globular protuberances formed near the incision, but no callus appeared, and many protuberances appeared on the surface of the scales. After 60 days, the protuberances at the incision developed into bulblets directly, while protuberances on the surface of the scales developed into few bulblets but crowded “leaf spines,” which gradually died and disappeared in the later culture; the proliferation coefficient was ∼6.30 then. Experimental results indicate that the optimal rooting medium for bulblets was 1/2MS medium with 2.0 mg/L IBA and 1.0 mg/L activated carbon (AC), with the rooting rate at 95.6%. This study identifies bulblet regeneration of F. crassicaulis, and an efficient direct organogenesis method was established: regenerated bulblets could be induced from scales in one step, so a large number of regenerated plants with the same genotype could be obtained in a short time.

Open Access