Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. (C. tinctoria) is used in composite tea material and has important medicinal functions. Soil salinization affects the growth and development of C. tinctoria in Xinjiang (China). Here, we discussed the changes in photosynthesis and physiological characteristics of C. tinctoria seedlings treated with different concentrations of NaCl [0 (CK), 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mmol·L−1] for 12, 24, and 72 hours. The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g S), transpiration rate (Tr), and stomatal inhibition rate (Ls) decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of NaCl. Salt stress promoted the accumulation of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), soluble sugar, soluble protein, and free proline (Pro). A highly significant positive correlation was found between Ls and Fv/Fm; Ls and Fv/Fo; soluble sugar and CAT; soluble sugar and soluble protein. C. tinctoria was most sensitive to the concentrations of 150 to 250 mmol·L−1 NaCl, and its salt stress tolerance was increased by reducing photosynthetic fluorescence parameters, improving the antioxidant enzyme system, and regulating osmotic substances.
Hong Jiang, Zhiyuan Li, Xiumei Jiang, and Yong Qin
Rong Zhang, Zhubing Yan, Yikun Wang, Xuesen Chen, Chengmiao Yin, and Zhiquan Mao
A pot experiment was performed to investigate the effects of Trichoderma harzianum on the root morphology of Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings and their soil environment under replant conditions. The experiment consisted of four treatments: continuously cropped soil (CK1), methyl bromide fumigation (CK2), carrier substrate control (T1), and T. harzianum fertilizer (T2). Plant growth parameters, soil phenolic acid content, abundance of soil microorganisms, and root respiration rate were measured. Compared with CK1, plant height, basal diameter, and fresh weight were 34.58%, 27.55%, and 32.91% greater in T2; 11.35%, 12.10%, and 18.33% greater in T1; and 54.34%, 57.64%, and 45.74% greater in CK2. These metrics were significantly higher in the CK2 treatment than in the other treatments. The second highest values were recorded in the T2 treatment. Differences in root architecture were consistent with differences in biomass. Application of T. harzianum fertilizer was associated with increases of 45.45%, 120.06%, 86.44%, and 268.29% in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), respectively, and there was little difference between T2 and CK2. The contents of phlorizin and phloretin were 39.39% and 51.70% less in T2, respectively, and 17.85% and 18.14% less in T1, respectively, compared with CK1. Trichoderma harzianum fertilizer increased the abundance of bacteria and actinomycetes while decreasing that of fungi. The gene copy numbers of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium moniliforme were 64.30% and 49.35% less, respectively, in the T2 treatment. The fungus population and the gene copy number of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium moniliforme was the least in CK2 because of the good sterilization effect. The T. harzianum fertilizer showed satisfactory effects in promoting the root growth of M. hupehensis, increasing the root resistance, decreasing the soil phenolic acid content, and significantly reducing the gene copy number of F. oxysporum and F. moniliforme. In summary, T. harzianum fertilizer is an effective and green alternative for the prevention and control of apple replant disease (ARD).
Laise S. Moreira and Matthew D. Clark
Seedlessness is one of the most desirable traits for table and raisin grapes. Stenospermocarpic cultivars are desirable because they have large berries with superior quality. Embryo rescue techniques have been widely used to get progeny seedling populations from crosses using seedless mother plants. Selection of the female parent, sampling time, and the growth medium are the most crucial to the success of this technique. This study investigated the effect of best sampling time and media composition on embryo rescue efficiency in a cold-hardy hybrid grape breeding program. We sampled ovules 5 to 9 weeks after flowering, and we tested four media compositions. The greatest percentages of embryo germination and normal seedlings were obtained when ovules were harvest at 8 weeks after flowering, indicating that it is suitable to harvest ovules at veraison, when the extraction of ovules is easier as a result of softer berry flesh. For the media composition experiment, all ovules were harvested at 8 weeks after flowering. Nitsch & Nitsch culture medium had very low germination, and the resulting seedlings performed the lowest compared with the other treatments. Lloyd & McCown Woody Plant Basal Medium (WPM) increased the number of embryos germinated significantly, and a number of normal seedlings and plantlets developed. Although there was no significant difference among the other three media containing WPM supplemented with different doses of plant regulators, the WPM Plus medium [with cytokinin (6-benzlaminopurine), indole-3-butyric acid, gibberellin, and casein hydrolysate] promoted the greatest percentage of established plants (46.98%). Therefore, the 8-weeks-after-flowering harvest time and the WPM Plus medium were selected for use in the embryo rescue protocol at the University of Minnesota grape breeding program.
Alejandra Ferenczi, Nobuko Sugimoto, and Randolph M. Beaudry
The volatile profile of ‘Redchief Delicious’ apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) fruit was evaluated at 18 time points from 3 weeks before to 8 weeks after onset of autocatalytic ethylene production to capture the dynamics associated with development from mature green to senescent fruit. Minor amounts of ester production began several days before the onset of ethylene production. Ester production rose rapidly as internal ethylene levels increased beyond 22 nmol·L−1 (0.5 µL·L−1). Peak ester production roughly coincided with maximum ethylene synthesis, declining thereafter. Ester production was further evaluated according to the acid- (alkanoate) and alcohol- (alkyl) derived portions of the ester. The maximum rate of production for a given ester tended to occur later in development as the chain length of the alcohol-derived portion declined. The production rate for many esters paralleled the rate of emanation of their respective alcohol substrates, suggesting that availability of the alcohols limits ester production more than availability of the acid substrates. Combining production rates with sensory descriptors and human sensitivity to individual volatiles permitted approximations of aroma sensations likely engendered by the fruit throughout ripening. Overripe and alcoholic sensations are predicted to increase 2 weeks after the initiation of ripening in response to an increase in the production of ethyl esters. Acetate esters predominated, comprising 50% to 80% of esters throughout maturation and ripening, indicating that the substrate acetyl-CoA may be at saturating levels for alcohol acyl transferase (AAT) at the final step of ester formation. Acetate feeding did not enhance ester production, although label from 13C-acetate was extensively incorporated into esters. The data are consistent with the action of multiple AAT isozymes differing in activity and substrate preference. Incorporation of labeled 13C-acetate into precursors of esters, alcohols, and acids, reflected ester biosynthesis via 1- and 2-carbon chain elongation pathways in ripening ‘Redchief Delicious’ apple fruit.
Lyle T. Wallace and Michael J. Havey
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants regenerated from cell cultures occasionally possess mosaic (MSC) phenotypes on cotyledons and leaves. Lines MSC3 and MSC16 have distinct MSC phenotypes and originated from plants regenerated from different cell-culture experiments established using a highly inbred wild-type cucumber. Both the mitochondrial (mt) DNA and MSC phenotype of cucumber show paternal transmission, and MSC3 and MSC16 have different mt coding regions at significantly lower copy numbers relative to wild-type plants. A nuclear locus, Paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm), conditions a high proportion of wild-type progenies, specifically when MSC16 is crossed as the male with wild-type female plants. During this research, we identified plants that produced a high proportion of wild-type progenies in crosses with MSC3 as the male parent. Plants from an F2 family were crossed with MSC3 as the male, progenies were scored for numbers of MSC vs. wild-type plants, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified for genetic mapping. A major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 3 was associated with a higher frequency of wild-type progenies from MSC3 as the male parent, and the 1.5-logarithm-of-odds interval for the most significant SNP was located 627 kb from Psm. These results reveal that separate genetic factors control sorting to the wild-type phenotype in progenies from crosses with different MSC parents. The identification of causal genes controlling mitochondrial sorting in cucumber should provide insight regarding nuclear-mitochondrial interactions affecting the prevalence of specific mitochondrial DNA in plants.
Xiuli Lv, Yuan Guan, Jian Wang, Yanwei Zhou, Qunlu Liu, and Zequn Yu
To reveal the genetic diversity and genetic relationships of China’s Bergenia germplasm, 28 Bergenia accessions from different regions in China were analyzed by 24 intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The results showed that 318 sites were amplified in all germplasm, including 307 polymorphic sites, and the percentage of polymorphic sites was 96.54%. Cluster analysis showed that the 28 accessions were divided into three categories, with a similarity coefficient of 0.5475. Bergenia purpurascens was clustered into one category; B. scopulosa was clustered into one category; and B. tianquaninsis, B. emeiensis, B. stracheyi, and B. crassifolia were clustered into one category. The results of the cluster analysis indicated that the 28 accessions were not completely classified by origin. Using the ISSR marker technique to analyze the phylogenetic relationship of Bergenia germplasm is helpful for identifying valuable resources and providing a theoretical basis for the selection of breeding parents.
Jiayi Ji, Zhenglin Li, Ji Tian, Jie Zhang, Yanfen Lu, Xiaoxiao Qin, Jianjun Li, Liqiang Liu, Zhe Gao, Yujing Hu, and Yuncong Yao
Andrew Sherwood, Lisa W. Alexander, Matthew D. Clark, Steve McNamara, and Stan C. Hokanson
Oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia Bartr.) is an understory shrub native to the southeastern United States. Hydrangeas are popular ornamental landscape plants; however, little is known about the diversity in horticulturally important traits for oakleaf hydrangea. Information regarding the variation in important traits could guide future breeding efforts for the species. Seed was collected from 55 populations throughout the range of the species for the purpose of conducting a horticultural characterization of the species compared with select cultivars. Plant architecture was characterized as plant height, number of nodes, internode length, number of branches, and plant width. Plant architecture was measured for container-grown and field-grown plants in two locations (Minnesota and Tennessee). Tolerance to leaf spot (Xanthomonas campestris L.) was characterized for wild-collected seedlings and cultivars by measuring disease severity under exposure to ambient inoculum. Cold hardiness was characterized during two winters with a controlled freezing experiment. During the first winter, seedlings were tested in January; during the second winter, seedlings and cultivars were tested monthly from October through April. Plant architecture varied by environment, with plants growing larger in Tennessee than in Minnesota. The heights of container-grown and field-grown plants were correlated with the collection site latitude (r = −0.66), with populations from the northeastern extent of the range of the species being the most compact, and populations from Florida being the tallest. Leaf spot severity varied significantly among populations and cultivars and was also correlated with latitude for the seedlings (r = 0.70). Two populations in Florida were identified as sources of high tolerance to leaf spot, whereas ‘Flemygea’ and ‘Alice’ were identified as having moderate tolerance to leaf spot. Cold hardiness varied among populations and cultivars and among months of the winter. The overall maximum cold hardiness was observed in February [mean lethal temperature (LT50) = −33.7 °C], and several populations maintained an extreme level of cold hardiness into late winter. Midwinter cold hardiness also varied by latitude (r = −0.65), with northern populations showing higher levels of cold hardiness. These results indicate that certain wild oakleaf hydrangea populations will be useful for introgressing novel variation into breeding programs.
Cyrus A. Smith, James L. Walworth, Mary J. Comeau, Richard J. Heerema, Joshua D. Sherman, and Randall Norton
A field study was conducted to evaluate tolerance of pecan rootstocks to soil salinity and sodicity. Seven cultivars—Elliott, Giles, Ideal, Peruque, Riverside, ‘Shoshoni, and VC1-68—were selected from a range of geographic regions of origin. The soil of the experimental plot was a poorly drained, saline–sodic Pima silty clay variant. The irrigation water was a moderately saline mix of Gila River and local groundwater with an electrical conductivity of 2.8 dS⋅m–1, containing primarily ions of Na and Cl. Eighty seeds of each cultivar were planted in a greenhouse in late Feb. 2016; 48 seedlings of each cultivar were transplanted into field plots in Feb. 2017. Half the trees received a soil-based application of Zn–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at planting. The trees were observed and rated for both vigor and resistance to salt injury on seven separate occasions. Trunk diameter was measured each dormant season. Leaf samples were collected on 9 Oct. 2019 and 6 Oct. 2020, and were analyzed for nutrient content. Zn-EDTA was not found to have a significant effect on growth, vigor, or resistance to salt injury. ‘Elliott’ seedlings exhibited greater tolerance for the alkaline, saline–sodic soil conditions than other cultivars. ‘Giles’ and ‘Peruque’ were most severely affected. Resistance to salt injury (ranging from marginal leaf burn to necrosis of entire leaf), vigor, and growth correlated more strongly with foliar concentrations of Na than Cl or K during 2019. Vigor and growth were not significantly correlated with foliar Na, Cl, or K concentrations in 2020. The foliar K:Na ratio had a nearly equal correlation with resistance to salt injury and a greater correlation with growth than that of Na alone in 2019. However, although the correlation of the K:Na ratio with vigor was stronger than that of Cl or K, Na had the strongest correlation with vigor in 2019. In 2020, the only significant correlation of growth and vigor was with the K:Na ratio. The strongest correlation with resistance to salt injury in 2020 was with foliar Na concentration.