Paeonia ostii T. Hong & J. X. Zhang is a perennial oil and medicinal plant with great importance as well as landscaping. P. ostii is being extensively planted in China, but the soil fertility limits the yield and quality. There is little information available on the effects of phosphorus fertilization on productivity, physiological characteristics, and seed yield and quality. This study investigated the influence of different phosphorus levels, 0 kg·hm−2 (CK), 90 c−2 (P1), 135 kg·hm−2 (P2), 180 kg·hm−2 (P3), 225 kg·hm−2 (P4), and 270 kg·hm−2 (P5), on the photosynthesis, morphology, physiological parameters, and yield of P. ostii. The results indicated that the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance (g S), and transpiration rate of P. ostii increased significantly with the application of P4, which increased by 34.77%, 65.72%, and 21.00% compared with CK, respectively. Simultaneously, the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, and photosynthetic pigment in P4 were the highest compared with other treatments. In addition, thousand-grain weight (326.4 g) and seed yield per plant (37.33 g) of P4 were significantly higher than the control. However, the total amount of unsaturated fatty acids in P4 was lower compared with other treatments. The indexes of high correlation coefficients with Dim 1 and Dim 2 were g S and superoxide dismutase (SOD), respectively. The results showed that phosphorus levels improved plant photosynthetic capacity and increased antioxidant capacity as well as seed yield. Furthermore, phosphate fertilizer had significant effects on the oil composition. Moreover, the effect of phosphorus application rate on the growth index of P. ostii was greater than that of the physiological index.
Xiangguang Duan, Wei Liu, Xiaojing Wang, Lixia Zhang, Shuguang Liu, Lili Guo, Dalong Guo, and Xiaogai Hou
Charles F. Forney, Kristen Cue, and Sherry Fillmore
The protrusion of sprouts is a major cause of loss of dry onions (Allium cepa L.) during extended storage. Sprouting is conventionally suppressed by treating onions with maleic hydrazide (MH) before harvest. More recently, ethylene was reported to inhibit sprout growth in stored onions, but commercial use of ethylene has been limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of ethylene on sprout suppression of five commercial cultivars of onions during storage and compare its effectiveness with and without MH treatment. Onions treated with MH were stored for up to 9 months at 1 °C in atmospheres with and without ethylene in a series of experiments conducted over six seasons. Differences in sprout elongation and protrusion were observed during storage in air among the five cultivars. Storage in ethylene was effective in inhibiting sprout elongation and root growth of onion bulbs in all cultivars, with concentrations of 7 µL·L−1 ethylene being more effective than 1 µL·L−1 ethylene. Delaying application of ethylene by 4 months was less effective in inhibiting sprout elongation than continuous treatment. Ethylene provided greater sprout suppression than MH treatments alone and could serve as a replacement for MH.
Phillip A. Wadl, Livy H. Williams III, Matthew I. Horry, and Brian K. Ward
The yield and insect resistance of 12 sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) clones grown in two different production systems (organic black plastic mulch and conventional bare ground) were evaluated in 2016 and 2017 in coastal South Carolina. Significant differences in total storage root yield, marketable storage root yield, U.S. No. 1 storage root yield, and percent of U.S. No. 1 storage roots in all trials were found, except for percent of U.S. No. 1 storage roots in 2017 for the organic black plastic mulch trial. In the organic black plastic mulch trials, ‘Bonita’ and USDA-04-136 consistently produced high marketable yields, whereas ‘Ruddy’ and USDA-W388 consistently produced the lowest marketable yields. ‘Averre’, ‘Beauregard’, ‘Covington’, and USDA-09-130 exhibited variable performance, with marketable yields among the highest in a single year. For the conventional trials, USDA-04-136 consistently produced high marketable yields, whereas ‘Ruddy’ and USDA-W-388 consistently produced the lowest marketable yields. ‘Averre’, ‘Bonita’, ‘Covington’, and USDA-09-130 exhibited variable performance, with marketable yields among the highest in a single year. For the organic black plastic mulch, significant differences were detected in the percent of uninjured roots and percent white grub (primarily Plectris aliena) damage in 2016 and in wireworm (Elateridae)-cucumber beetle (Diabrotica)-flea beetle (Systena) severity index (WDS severity index) in 2016 and 2017. USDA-04-136 and USDA-W-388 consistently had the lowest WDS severity index, whereas ‘Covington’ consistently had the highest WDS severity index. For the conventional trials, significant differences were found among clones in both years for all insect rating variables, except for percent sweetpotato weevil (Cylas formicarius elegantulus) damage. ‘Ruddy’, USDA-04-136, and USDA-W-388 consistently yielded the highest percent of uninjured roots, whereas ‘Averre’, ‘Bonita’, SC-1149-19, and USDA-09-130 consistently had the lowest percent of uninjured roots. The research reported here for yield and insect resistance under conventional and organic production systems will be useful for producers in the selection of cultivars suitable for growth in South Carolina.
Dong Sub Kim, Steven B. Kim, Mike Stanghellini, Melody Meyer-Jertberg, and Steven A. Fennimore
Soil disinfestation with steam has been evaluated in strawberry fruiting fields as a nonchemical method of soil disinfestation; however, little is known about the use of steam for field production of strawberry daughter plants. The objective of this study was to compare daughter plant production in soils previously treated with steam compared to those treated with standard methyl bromide (MB) and chloropicrin (Pic) treatments. A prototype field steam applicator and a self-propelled diesel-fueled steam generator and applicator were tested at two high-elevation nurseries near Macdoel, CA, in Sept. 2018 and Aug. 2020, respectively. The steam application heated the soil above 60 °C for ≈60 minutes to a depth of 25 cm at both nurseries. The pest control efficacy of the steam applications against weeds, Verticillium spp., Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Pythium ultimum were similar to that of MB:Pic. The stolons and daughter plants densities in fields with steam treatment were similar to those in fields with MB:Pic treatment. Therefore, we suggest that soil disinfestation with steam may be a viable method of producing healthy strawberry plants. However, more research is needed to verify plant sanitation and quality.
Zhanao Deng, Natalia A. Peres, and Johan Desaeger
F. Bailey Norwood
Gardening is a popular practice despite the abundant and affordable food at the grocery store, suggesting gardening is more than just a way to obtain food. The purpose of this article is to explore these other motivations. Evolutionary and pragmatic motivations are first explored, and then discarded, in favor of a values-driven approach. Gardening is depicted as both a form of art and a hobby. As an art form, the writings of iconic philosophers such as Immanuel Kant, Arthur Schopenhauer, and Martin Heidegger—as well as modern philosophers—are used to articulate the meaning of gardening as an aesthetic experience. As a hobby, gardening is a socially approved form of leisure and productive play. The conclusion is that, in addition to obvious physiological benefits such as food and exercise, gardening helps us acquire higher needs, such as self-actualization and transcendence. Why do we garden? No simple answer can suffice. Gardening, like many interests, is performed both for an end product and for the process itself. Gardeners can hardly be expected to be able to articulate their reasons, just as sports fans would have difficulty articulating why they watch football, or music lovers explaining why songs mesmerize them. When pressed, their answers will be mostly a tautology (e.g., I simply like it). However, this does not mean we cannot make progress in understanding the motivations for gardening. Gardening is a form of exercise, it is a hobby, and is performed for aesthetic pleasure, and research on motivations for all three of these exist—especially that regarding aesthetics.
Fekadu Fufa Dinssa, Ruth Minja, Thomas Kariuki, Omary Mbwambo, Roland Schafleitner, and Peter Hanson
Amaranths (Amaranthus sp.) are a popular leafy vegetable grown and consumed by resource-poor people in many African countries. Greater awareness of the importance of nutritious foods has increased demand by African consumers for amaranth. Presently, most African farmers grow low-yielding local varieties of variable seed quality. High-yielding amaranth varieties that are adapted to the major agro-ecologies of eastern and southern Africa possess key traits needed by male and female farmers and meet diverse market preferences are required. The objective of this study was to identify amaranth lines adapted to major amaranth production environments in Kenya and Tanzania using a gender-disaggregated farmers participatory approach to explore possible gender differences in trait and variety preferences. Twenty amaranth entries were evaluated for vegetable yield, agronomic traits, and organoleptic taste tests in replicated, farmer-participatory variety selection trials at one location in Kenya and at four locations in Tanzania. Differences among entries (G), locations (E), and G × E interaction were significant or highly significant for marketable vegetable yield. Location followed by entry was the most important factor that explained differences in yield. G and G × E interaction biplot analysis classified the five locations into two different mega-environments, mainly based on altitude, temperatures, and soil characteristics. Marketable vegetable yield was positively correlated with leaf length, plant height, and the selection scores of female and male farmers at almost all locations. Selection scores of female and male farmers were positively correlated, indicating that male and female farmers shared similar amaranth variety preferences. Farmers identified and ranked important traits that can be used by breeders to design amaranth product profiles and develop amaranth breeding objectives. Lines combining high yield with high farmer and consumer preference scores have been retained for distinctiveness, uniformity, and stability tests for possible release as commercial varieties.
Adigun McLeod, Kelly Vining, Tyler Hoskins, and Ryan Contreras
As the industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) market grows, there is a need for methods to clonally propagate parental breeding stock and new cultivars. Information is lacking on vegetative cutting propagation of hemp. We evaluated how propagation environment (intermittent mist vs. subirrigation under a humidity dome), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) formulation (talc rooting powder vs. IBA in solution), and IBA concentration (0, 3000, or 8000 ppm) affected stem cuttings from ‘I3’, a cannabinoid-free cultivar of industrial hemp. Under mist or domes, rooting quality and percent declined at 8000 ppm IBA. Root and shoot quality and rooting percentage also were reduced in 3000 ppm IBA in solution treatment compared with talc. Our data show that for the cultivar tested, cuttings rooted at the highest percentage and produced the highest-quality roots and shoots with either no hormone or 3000 ppm talc powder. These treatments did equally well under humidity domes or intermittent mist.